Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 I Structure and Function of the...

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Chapter 2 I. Structure and Function of the Neuron a. Dendrites Dendrites - feathery extensions that branch from the neuron into the immediate neighborhood of the cell body b. Axon Axon - the part of the neuron that extends from the cell body, functions similarly in all creatures. Its main function is to transmit electrochemical information from the cell body to the synapse through microtubules along its length. c. Terminal Buttons -Near the end of the axon are branches with slightly enlarged ends called axon terminals or Terminal Buttons . -The site of interneuronal transmits from one neuron to another, is called synapse , the place where electrical nerve impulses cause the release of a neurotransmitter. -This chemical in turn affects another neuron or muscle in either an excitatory or an inhibitory manner -Signals that travel along the axon are electrical, and the transfer of neurotransmitters across synapses, from one neuron to another, is chemical. -Researchers can therefore study and analyze the brain through electrical means – electroencephalograph (EEG) II. Neuron Classifications and Terminology Neurologists commonly classify neurons either by morphology (shape) or by function. The three principal classes of neurons are defined by the number of axons emanating (coming out) from their cells bodies. Most are multipolar neurons , with two or more axons. Bipolar neurons have two axons. Monopolar or unipolar neurons have a single axon. Neurons with short axons or no axons are called interneurons ; they integrate neural activity within a specific brain region.
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-In classifying neurons by their function, motor neurons make muscles contract and change the activity of glands; sensory neurons respond directly to changes in light, touch, temperature, odor, and so on. The majority of neurons are interneurons or “between” neurons, because they receive input from and send output to other neurons. -The three major types of fibers primarily consist of white matter: rigrw0ihgierwnhg White matter fibers Intracerebral fibers connects within one hemisphere Intercor..structure in 2 hemispheres Connect …..
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