Chapter 4 - Chapter4 Sensationisthebodyswindowtotheworld

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Chapter 4 α Sensation is the body’s window to the world α Sensation begins with the process of  transduction   α An environmental stimulus activates a specific  receptor cell  creating energy, which is transduced  into an electrical stimulus that is then carried to  neurons for the brain to process** α **Agnosia , the inability to recognize the form and/ sensory domain α The somatosensory system begins at the level of  receptors, of which five types are found on the skin  o Mechanical receptors  transduce energy from  o Chemoreceptors  respond to various chemical  membranes o Thermoreceptors  o Nocioreceptors  serve as monitors to alert the  brain to damage or threat of damage o Proprioceptors  on skeletal muscles detect  movement via degree of stretch, angle, & 
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relative position of limbs.  Proprioceptors on  hands help identify the shapes of objects via  touch α Chemical Senses o systems o α Taste o The traditional theory about how taste functions,  presented in most general psychology textbooks,  describes the tongue’s ability to discriminate four    bitter o Some researchers have suggested a fifth taste,  umami , from the Japanese word for “delicious” o Disorders in taste are rare in comparison to  disorders in smell α Smell o Smell is the least well understood system o Certainly it is the oldest sensory system,  evolutionary α Visual processing
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o The visual system operates via two types  of  photoreceptor cells. o  transduce the electromagnetic  of objects o Cones, which detect wavelengths of color, are  o are tuned to the shades of gray we experience in  α Associative Visual Agnosia o Agnosia is a literal absence of (1) knowing what  can occur in any sensory domain o In the modality of vision, people with  visual  object agnosia*  may fail to recognize objects at   all **, or in milder cases, confuse objects that  they observe from different angles or in different  lighting conditions o The term  prosopagnosia*  refers to the special 
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Chapter 4 - Chapter4 Sensationisthebodyswindowtotheworld

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