ch03 - Chapter 3: Human Development Chapter Outline...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3: Human Development Chapter Outline Overview Understanding how we develop How is developmental psychology investigated? Development at every stage of life Prenatal Development Infant Development Childhood Development Adolescent Development Adult Development Developmental Psychopathology Understanding How We Develop: Questions that Guide Dev. Research 1. Nature vs. Nurture 2. Qualitative (Stages) vs. Quantitative (Continuous change) 1) Cross-Sectional Research- Compares many different age groups at one time point. 2) Longitudinal Research- Studies the same group of individuals over multiple time points. How is Developmental Psychology Investigated? Adv. and Dis. of Each Design Cross-sectional design Advantage : quicker! Disadvantage : Cannot control for outside variables Longitudinal design Advantage- eliminates outside variables Disadvantages- Takes a very long time, $$$$$ Cohort-Sequential design Combines cross-sectional and longitudinal designs Before We Are Born: How We Develop Genetics DNA is the building blocks of our chromosomes. We all have 23 pairs of chromosomes in each cell. Genotype and Phenotype GeneotypeThe sum total of all the genes that a person inherits. Phenotypethe way in which the genes are actually expressed or observed characteristics of the genes. Patterns of Genetic Inheritance We have two genes for everything (one from mom and one from dad). Homozygous-genes are alike Show inherited trait Heterozygous-genes are not alike Genes duke it out to see which trait will appear. Ways genes can interact in Heterozygous relationships 1) Dominant Recessive Dominant gene effects characteristic. The recessive gene has no effect.  Dominant traits: dark hair, curly hair, normal hearing and vision.  1,000 human characteristics 2) Codominant or Additive Genes A number of genes interact to form a specific trait. (skin color, height) To Make things even more complicated Only a few of our traits are discrete traits the product of a single gene pair. Most human traits are polygenic traits ones that involve the combined impact of multiple genes. most behaviors are polygenetic. 3 Stages of Prenatal Development Germinal Period 0-2 weeks Starts with egg being fertilized Ends when egg implants in the uterus 3 Stages of Prenatal Dev....
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ch03 - Chapter 3: Human Development Chapter Outline...

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