ch07 - Learning CHAPTER7 LectureOutline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6....

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CHAPTER 7 Learning
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Lecture Outline 1. What is learning? 2. Classical Conditioning 3. Operant Conditioning 4. Observational Learning 5. Factors that aid learning 6. Learning: What happens in the brain? 7. Prenatal and postnatal learning: How we develop 8. Learning and gender: How we differ 9. Learning disabilities: When things go wrong
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1) What is learning? Lasting change as a result of practice, study, or  experience.
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2 Types of Learning Non-associative learning : change resulting from experiences  with a single sensory cue. Habituation Weakening of response to a stimulus after repeated  presentation. Sensitization Increase in response to a stimuli after repeated presentation. Associative learning : Connections are formed between two  or more stimuli. Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning
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2) Classical Conditioning The association of two stimuli. Pavlov-founder
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Pavlov’s Dog
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Classical Conditioning Continued Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS):  A stimulus that  natural produces a response. (i.e., food) Unconditioned Response (UCR):   The natural  physical response to the stimulus. (i.e., salivate) Conditioned Stimulus (CS):   The stimulus that is  originally neutral but after pairings with an  unconditioned stimulus becomes meaningful.  (i.e.,  bell) Conditioned Response (CR) :   The learned physical  response to a previously neutral stimulus. (i.e.,  salivate)
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In-Class Activity Please identify the UCS, UCR, CS, CR in the following examples Jonathan loves spicy food! Last week he ate at Tia  Mexicana three times and literally perspired from the  hot spices. Yesterday, as he drove past the restaurant,  Jonathan began to perspire profusely. Jeremiah is 6 months old. His mother warms his  bottles in the microwave. Whenever the bell on the  microwave rings, Jeremiah begins to drool.
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1) Acquisition: The initial learning of the stimulus-response  relationship. 2) Extinction: Diminished responding that happens when the  CS (tone) no longer occurs right before UCS (food). 3) Spontaneous Recovery: CR can recur after a time delay  without need for further conditioning. 4) Generalization: The tendency of a new stimulus, one that is  similar to the original CS, to elicit the CR. 5) Discrimination: Learned ability to distinguish
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ch07 - Learning CHAPTER7 LectureOutline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6....

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