ch09 - Language and Thought Chapter 9 Chapter Outline 1....

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Unformatted text preview: Language and Thought Chapter 9 Chapter Outline 1. Language 2. Language and Thought 3. Thought 4. Thinking to Make Decisions 5. Thinking About Thinking: Metacognition 6. Thinking: When Things Go Wrong 1) Language Language is defined as a set of symbols used for communication. Facilitates thinking, problem solving, and decision making. Unique to humans. Supports creative and progressive social interaction. Components of Language Language production Formation of language. Language comprehension Ability to understand meaning of language. Building Blocks of Language Phonemes Smallest unit of sound in a language  e.g. The word pig has three phonemes: /p/, /i/, /g/. Morphemes Smallest unit of meaning in a language  e.g. The word pigs has two morphemes: pig and s . Syntax The set of rules in a language describing how words are used to convey meaning in a sentence (grammar)  The meaning of a word ( symantics ) can change based on its location in a sentence: He was sick with the flu. That skateboard trick was sick! Pragmatics The functional, practical use of language.  Includes nonverbal communication (body language), gestures, and social norms. Language: How We Develop Sequence of Language Learning Prevocal learning 2-4 months old  Babies distinguish all phonemes they will later use for language. Babbling - ~6 months old  Meaningless experimental sounds preceding actual language. First words - ~ 1 year old  Simple single word talking begins with comprehension exceeding speech. Telegraphic speech by 2 years old  Simple (two word) sentences omitting all but essential words. Pragmatics by 3 years old  Basic understanding of practical information regarding language. Grammar by 4 years old  Basic rules of grammar are understood without formal education. 3 Theories for How Language is Learned 1. Nature- children are genetically programmed at birth to learn to talk (Chomsky) We are born with a Language Acquisition Device in our brain that allows us to easily learn language. 2. Nurture- language is entirely learned (Skinner) When babies are given rewards (praise or attention) for a word/sound than they are more likely to repeat that word/sound....
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ch09 - Language and Thought Chapter 9 Chapter Outline 1....

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