ch11 - Motivation Chapter 11 Chapter Outline 1. Theories of...

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Unformatted text preview: Motivation Chapter 11 Chapter Outline 1. Theories of Motivation 2. Biological Motivations: Hunger 3. Biological Motivations: Sex 4. Psychological Motivations: Affiliation and Achievement Definition Motivation - an internal process that activates, guides, and maintains behavior over time. Motivation is goal directed. Motivation varies in strength and duration. Motive - a need or desire 1) Theories of Motivation Instinct Theory Instinct Theory-People are motivated by their biological (innate) instincts. Examples-newborn reflexes, maternal protection, social interaction Drive Reduction Theory Belief that a physiological need creates an aroused state that drives ( motivates ) us to reduce that need. Restores balance - homeostasis Pushed by biological, inborn needs Hunger pains Pulled by incentives in environment Sight and smell of cookies Examples-Cooling off when we are hot Arousal Theory We are motivated to pursue an optimum level of stimulation (arousal). Some motivated behaviors increase arousal. Some motivated behaviors decrease arousal. Yerkes-Dodson Law Yerkes-Dodson Law- States that performance on task is best when the arousal level is optimal for that specific task. Incentive Theory Intrinsic motivation- Motivated by internal factors. Engage in a task because it gives you pleasure or develops a skill you value. Examples- Wanting to learn, having fun Extrinsic motivation- Motivated by external factors that are not related to the task. Motivated to do a task as a means to an end (not as an end in itself). Examples- Grades, money, recognition Incentive Theory Continued What happens in the brain Liking leads to wanting  Pleasure in the moment (liking) produces opiates in the brain.  Liking also produces dopamine in the brain which increases the odds of wanting to repeat a pleasurable experience in the future. Brain regions associated with dopamine release are activated during a pleasurable experience and direct future behavior. Dopamine pathway: ventral tegmental area nucleus accumbens & prefrontal cortex Hierarchy of Needs First level- Physiological Needs relating to physical survival (food, water, sex) Second level- Safety The need to feel safe and secure Third level- Love and belonging The need to have close relationships with others and be accepted as a group....
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This note was uploaded on 09/23/2011 for the course PSY 1103 taught by Professor Anderson during the Fall '08 term at University of Central Oklahoma.

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ch11 - Motivation Chapter 11 Chapter Outline 1. Theories of...

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