Lecture 25 Mendel Part I

Lecture 25 Mendel Part I - Lecture 25 Mendelian Genetics,...

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Lecture 25 Mendelian Genetics, Part 1 Campbell Chap. 14, 6 th Ed. pp. 247-252. 7 th Ed. pp. 251-256. 8 th Ed. pp. 262-267 REVIEW protein structure: 6 th Ed. pp 71-70. 7 th th Ed. pp 77-83 Introduction Proteins are the most diverse of the macromolecules in living organisms. This is because different proteins have a huge variety of structures – unlike other macromolecules. The order of the amino acids in the chain determines how each protein will fold and what its structure will be. Proteins have a huge variety of functions and are responsible for essentially everything that goes on in a living organism- including making the other macromolecules. For this reason, it’s essential that each individual can make all the right proteins – and that information needed to make the right proteins is passed between generations. This is where DNA comes in. DNA stores and transmits information needed to make proteins from one generation to the next, because DNA codes for proteins (indirectly, through mRNA). A gene is the unit of DNA that specifies the order of amino acids in 1 protein. The single DNA molecule in each chromosome consists of many genes arranged lengthwise, one after the other. Diploid cells (all cells in the body except the gametes, which are eggs and sperm) contain pairs of homologous chromosomes. The DNA molecules in two homologous chromosomes are almost identical. They contain the same genes, coding for the same proteins, that may have slight changes in the nucleotide sequence. Different versions of the same gene are called alleles . Different alleles of a gene code for proteins with slightly different amino acid sequences. These slight changes can have major effects on the activity of the protein. If you are homozygous for a gene, you have the
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This note was uploaded on 09/22/2011 for the course BIO 202 taught by Professor Dean during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Lecture 25 Mendel Part I - Lecture 25 Mendelian Genetics,...

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