Lecture 36 EukGenomes2010 wHIV

Lecture 36 EukGenomes2010 wHIV - Eukaryotic Genomes 6th ed:...

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Eukaryotic Genomes 6 th ed: 356-361 7 th ed: 374-381; 399 8 th ed: 432-441
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Genome projects : Sequencing the entire genome of a species 1.Human 2.Model systems : mouse,Drosophila, yeasts, etc. 3. Crops : e.g., rice 4. Pathogens : protozoa, bacteria
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Species # of genes E. coli 4,400 Yeast 6,200 Drosophila 13,700 C. elegans (nematode) 20,000 Arabidopsis (plant) 25,500 Mouse 22,000 Human 20,500
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*Haploid genome sizes in Mbp (million base pairs) Species Gene # Size* E. coli 4,400 4.6 Yeast 6,200 13 Drosophila 13,700 180 C. elegans (nematode) 20,000 100 Arabidopsis (plant) 25,500 118 Mouse 22,000 2,600 Human 20,500 3,200
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Bacteria: >90% of genome codes for RNA and/or protein 98.5% of human genome doesn’t code for protein, tRNA, or rRNA. Most of genome is “junk” DNA with no known function.
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1.5% exons/tRNA/rRNA 24% introns & regula- tory sequences (promoters, control elements, etc) 15% unique non-coding DNA 59% repetitive DNA Human genome
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Fig. 19.4 (7 th ed), 21.7 (8 th ed)
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Puffer fish ( Fugu ) has unusually short introns. Huntingtin: protein in nervous system in both humans & Fugu . mRNA, protein are same size in both species; (~3,500 amino acids) Intron size & number can vary greatly between species.
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Human huntingtin gene: 180 kb (kilo bases; thousand base pairs) Fugu gene: 24 kb Human gene: Fugu gene : (short lines are exons: intervening spaces are introns)
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Fugu genes have same number & length of exons : human gene has longer introns. Human gene
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Lecture 36 EukGenomes2010 wHIV - Eukaryotic Genomes 6th ed:...

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