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Unformatted text preview: Click to edit Master subtitle style 9/22/11 Copyright © The Chapter 3 Bacteria and Archaea 1 9/22/11 Copyright © The prokaryotes differ from eukaryotes in size and simplicity ◦ most lack internal membrane systems ◦ term prokaryotes is becoming blurred ◦ this text will use Bacteria and Archaea prokaryotes are divided into two taxa ◦ Bacteria and Archaea 2 Bacterial and Archaea 9/22/11 Copyright © The shape ◦ cocci and rods most common ◦ various others arrangement ◦ determined by plane of division ◦ determined by separation or not size - varies 3 Size, Shape, and Arrangement 9/22/11 Copyright © The cocci (s., coccus) – spheres ◦ diplococci (s., diplococcus) – pairs ◦ streptococci – chains ◦ staphylococci – grape-like clusters ◦ tetrads – 4 cocci in a square ◦ sarcinae – cubic configuration of 8 cocci 4 Shape and Arrangement-1 9/22/11 Copyright © The bacilli (s., bacillus) – rods ◦ coccobacilli – very short rods vibrios – resemble rods, comma shaped spirilla (s., spirillum) – rigid helices spirochetes – flexible helices 5 Shape and Arrangement-2 9/22/11 Copyright © The 6 Figure 3.1 9/22/11 Copyright © The mycelium – network of long, multinucleate filaments pleomorphic – organisms that are variable in shape Archaea ◦ pleomorphic, branched, flat, square, other unique shapes 7 Shape and Arrangement-3 9/22/11 Copyright © The 8 Figure 3.2 9/22/11 Copyright © The smallest – 0.3 ( Mycoplasma ) average rod – 1.1 - 1.5 x 2 – 6 μm ( E. coli ) very large – 600 x 80 μm Epulopiscium fishelsoni 9 Size 9/22/11 Copyright © The 10 Figure 3.3 9/22/11 Copyright © The 11 Figure 3.4 Click to edit Master subtitle style 9/22/11 Copyright © The Cell Organization Archaea and Bacteria Common Features Cell envelope – 3 layers Cytoplasm External structures 12 9/22/11 Copyright © The 13 Table 3.1 9/22/11 Copyright © The 14 Figure 3.6 Click to edit Master subtitle style 9/22/11 Copyright © The Bacterial Cell Envelope Plasma membrane Cell wall Layers outside the cell wall 15 9/22/11 Copyright © The absolute requirement for all living organisms some bacteria also have internal membrane systems 16 Bacterial Plasma Membrane 9/22/11 Copyright © The encompasses the cytoplasm selectively permeable barrier interacts with external environment ◦ receptors for detection of and response to chemicals in surroundings ◦ transport systems ◦ metabolic processes 17 Plasma Membrane Functions 9/22/11 Copyright © The lipid bilayers with floating proteins...
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