BIO370lec4 - Lecture 4 Recommended books Genetic Variation...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 4 Recommended books Genetic Variation Darwins Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection did not explain: how variability was generated in populations how variations are passed on to offspring Modern Evolutionary Synthesis 1. Mendelian genetics reconciled with gradual evolution by means of natural selection (late 1930s-1940s) 2. Broad-scale changes (macroevolution) explained by changes seen in local populations (microevolution) stimulated by the development of population genetics (1920s-30s) major contributors: J. Huxley, R.A. Fisher,S. Wright, J.B.S. Haldane, T. Dobzhansky, E. Mayr, G.G. Simpson, G.L. Stebbins among others Darwins Postulates & the Modern Synthesis 1. Individuals within a species are variable for many traits. Variability is due to mutation creating new alleles, and segregation and independent assortment shuffling alleles into new combinations. 1. Some of these variations are passed on to offspring. Individuals pass their alleles on to their offspring intact. 2. In every generation, more offspring are produced than can survive. In every generation, some individuals are more successful at surviving and reproducing than others. 3. The individuals who survive and go on to reproduce are those with the most favorable variations. The individuals that survive and reproduce, or who reproduce the most, are those with the alleles that best adapt them to their environment. (higher fitness => increase in frequency) Principles of Heredity What is DNA? What does DNA do? What is a gene? How are genes inherited? Genetic basis of variation Gene mutations Nucleotide (base) substitutions Insertions/deletions Chromosome alterations Inversions Duplications Translocations Polyploidization 1859 Darwin, Origin of Species , blending inheritance 1865 Mendel, Experiments in Plant Hybridization, particle inheritance 1903 Sutton, proposed chromosomal basis of genetic material 1908 Hardy & Weinberg describe population equilibrium 1913 Sturtevant & Morgon, genetic maps based on linkage 1953 Watson, Crick, Franklin, helical structure of DNA 1966 Genetic code, codon-amino acid relationship 1973 Eukaryotic gene cloned into bacterial vector 1977 DNA sequencing 1989 Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) 1995 First bacterial genome, ~4,000 genes 1996 First yeast genome, ~6,200 genes 2000 Arabidopsis thaliana genome, ~25,000 genes...
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BIO370lec4 - Lecture 4 Recommended books Genetic Variation...

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