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chapter_14 - Chapter 14 Autoimmunity and Transplantation...

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Chapter 14 Autoimmunity and Transplantation Autoimmunity is a destructive immune response against self antigens (how does this compare to hypersensitivities?) Once started, autoimmune diseases are hard to stop Severity ranges from minor to lethal Ehrlich predicted autoimmunity and called it horror autotoxicus
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Some commom autoimmune diseases
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Some autoimmune diseases may have a genetic component and are triggered by external factors (e.g., infection) or injury. Others are probably strictly caused by external factors (e.g., infection) or injury
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Some tissue-specific antigen can be expresses in the thymus causing deletion (death) of thymocytes that recognize those antigens
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Autoreactive B cells can arise in germinal centers from cell that are undergoing somatic mutations (a mutation could change the specificity of a BCR from anti- foreign to anti-self). It is excepted that these autoreactive B cell will bind antigen (signal 1) but should not find a autoreactive T cell to provide help (signal 2). Recall, signal 1 without signal 2 results in anergy and death.
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Some parts in the body exclude immune responses. These are immunologically privileged sites . These tend to be organs that cannot sustain immunological damage without seriously jeopardizing reproductive fitness. Injury to immunologically privileged sites can lead to autoimmunity
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Autoimmune diseases can be organ-specific or systemic
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Autoantibodies (IgG) can cross the placenta and affect the fetus Graves’ disease is an autoimmune form of hyperthroidism
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Autoimmunity can be classified in a manner similar to hypersensitivities
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Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
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Nucleated cells can resist complement lysis better than RBCs.
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