Thermo_1 - BIOL 7110 4105 CHEM 8901 4804 THERMODYNAMICS I 1...

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- 1 - BIOL 7110 / 4105 / CHEM 8901 / 4804 THERMODYNAMICS – I 1. Thermodynamic Quantities V Volume liters or cm 3 P Pressure atmospheres T Temperature Kelvin 273.15 K = 0 o C n Number of particles Moles (mol) N 0 Avogadro's number N 0 = 6.022 x 10 23 mol -1 (6.022 x 10 23 molecules/mole) k Boltzmann's constant k = 1.38 x 10 -23 J/K (joules/Kelvin) R = N 0 k Gas constant R = 8.314 joules/(mol . K) = 1.987 cal/(mol . K) F Faraday constant F = 96.48 kJ/(V . mol) E Internal energy kJ/mol or kcal/mol Q Heat kJ/mol or kcal/mol W Work kJ/mol or kcal/mol H Enthalpy kJ/mol or kcal/mol S Entropy J/(mol . K) or cal/(mol . K) Free Energy kJ/mol or kcal/mol 1 cal = 41.3 cm 3. atm 1 cal = 4.18 joule The nutrition calorie is 1 Cal (big calorie) 1 Cal = 1000 cal = 1 kcal At T = 0 o C and P = 1 atm, 1 mole of gas has V = 22.4 liters = 22,400 cm 3 DO NOT MEMORIZE PHYSICAL CONSTANTS! EXCEPTION: at 300 K, thermal energy RT = 2.5 kJ/mol = 0.6 kcal/mol AND: you do need to memorize the numbered equations NOTE - Different authors use different abbreviations for internal energy, either E or U. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Thermodynamics tells us whether or not a physical or chemical process is possible. Thermodynamics does not tell us the rate at which a process will actually proceed.
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- 2 - 2. Internal Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics Internal energy is the sum of kinetic and potential energy E = E kin + E pot (Internal energy is sometimes abbreviated U, and sometimes E.) Total kinetic energy of all atoms is Temperature is directly proportional to the average atomic kinetic energy
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