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Thermo_2_Lhandout

# Thermo_2_Lhandout - Gas in two flasks Many atoms...

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1 Thermodynamics 2. The Second Law; Free Energy BIOL 7110 / CHEM 8901 / BIOL 4105 / CHEM 4804 January 25, 2011 Gas in two flasks: Many atoms Gas in two flasks: Six atoms Which of these conformations is more probable? Gas in two flasks: Four atoms 1 2 3 4 How many distinct conformations are there? Gas in two flasks: Four atoms Sum = 16 = 2 4 4 4 1 6 1 Gas in two flasks: Four atoms Sum = 16 = 2 4

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2 Gas in two flasks: Twenty atoms 0 20 1 1 19 20 2 18 190 3 17 1140 4 16 4845 5 15 15504 6 14 38760 7 13 77520 8 12 125970 9 11 167960 10 10 184756 11 9 167960 12 8 125970 13 7 77520 20 0 1 N left N right Number of ways 74% } Gas in two flasks: Twenty atoms 0 20 1 1 19 20 2 18 190 3 17 1140 4 16 4845 5 15 15504 6 14 38760 7 13 77520 8 12 125970 9 11 167960 10 10 184756 11 9 167960 12 8 125970 13 7 77520 20 0 1 N left N right Number of ways 88% } Gas in two flasks: Twenty atoms 0 20 1 1 19 20 2 18 190 3 17 1140 4 16 4845 5 15 15504 6 14 38760 7 13 77520 8 12 125970 9 11 167960 10 10 184756 11 9 167960 12 8 125970 13 7 77520 20 0 1 N left N right Number of ways 96% } of all configurations have “pressures” within ±40% of the average pressure Gas in two flasks: 10 23 atoms The probability that the pressure will fluctuate
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