Wk 5 Lec 2

Wk 5 Lec 2 - GeneRegulation Chapter11 Introduction...

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Gene Regulation  Chapter 11
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Introduction To Clone or Not to Clone clone  is a  genetically identical organism , which  originated from a  somatic cell nucleus of another organism There are a multitude of problems associated with cloning an organism,  including  rapid onset of “old age” and age-related illnesses of the  cloned organism . Ethical and evolutionary issues  are being raised with the ability  to  clone to curb the extinction of endangered species .
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How and why genes are regulated Four of the many different types  of human cells: They all share the same genome. What makes them different? In cellular differentiation certain  genes are turned on and off. Cells become specialized in  structure and function .
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Patterns of gene expression in differentiated cells In gene expression, A gene is turned on and transcribed  into RNA. Information flows from genes to  proteins, genotype to phenotype. The regulation of gene expression  plays a central role in development  from a zygote to a multicellular  organism. Patterns of gene expression in  specialized human cells
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Gene Regulation in Bacteria Gene regulation or control allows an organism to respond quickly to changes in the  environment.  The flow of information from gene to protein is called  gene expression . Bacteria can alter gene expression based on environmental factors. Important terms: Control sequences: stretches of DNA that coordinate gene expression. Operon: a cluster of genes with related functions, including the control sequences. Promoter: a control sequence and the site where the transcription enzyme initiates  transcription. Operator: DNA sequence between the promoter and the enzyme genes. Also acts as an on  and off switch for the genes.
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Gene Regulation  Proteins interacting with DNA turn  prokaryotic genes on or off in response to  environmental changes. The process of turning on or turning off a  gene is called  gene regulation Gene regulation or control allows an  organism to respond quickly to changes in  the environment.  The flow of information from gene to protein  is called gene expression .
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Gene Regulation This model of gene control was first proposed as  a hypothesis in 1961 by Jacob and Monod, for  the control of lactose utilization enzymes in E.  coli. Much experimental evidence has since confirmed 
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Wk 5 Lec 2 - GeneRegulation Chapter11 Introduction...

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