Lab 3 DNA

Lab 3 DNA - N anlC Section _ _ Day and Titne _ Lab \veek 10...

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NanlC _ Section _ Day and Titne _ Lab \veek 10 - Forensic DNA Fingerprinting Carolina Biological Cat. #GE-21-121 0 Objective This lab simulates the usc of DN,:-\ in forensic investigations. \Ve \\'i11 introduce the concepts of PCR and DNA fingerprinting. The '"DNA" of 2 suspects will be cornpared f()f a 111atc11 \vith DNA evidence collected fi·Oll1 a crill1e site. This exercise is a simulation of the analysis of one type of ON/-\ fingerprint. This type of fingerprint uses the technique called the pol)/merase chain reaction. or peR. Introduction Re.\;·triction Fragment Length PoI.FI11olphh. m.\· /"JthClUgh DNA frorn hurnans is very silnilar, excluding identical t\vins. each of us posses unique patterns \\'ithi11 our DNi\. Consequently \v'hen our DNA is digested (cut up) \vith restriction enzyrnes a lmique pattenl is disp1ay'ed. \Vhen this digested D~~ A electrophoresed on an agarose gel the unique patterns are disce111ed. Restriction m:lpping is the iirst step in characterizing a DNA ti-aglnent. DAA fingerprint:·; and PCR - Po(pnerase Chain Reaction DNA fingerprinting is an application of DNA technology that gets lots of publicity. There are a number of stories about people released frOln prison aiter DNA an211:v'sis of old erin1c scene evidence shows they were innocent: others are in1plicatecl because dried saliy'a from an envelope matches their DNA protl1e. There arc still others convicted because their ON A protiles 111atches evidence frOll1 a violent crirne. This technique is being used to identify hUll1an ren1ains fi-0111 the 9-11 terror attacks. The peR technique is used to an1plify a speeitlc fragment of the genome to produce enough ON A for accurate identification or characterization. This technique allows scientists to accurately' identif.'y, with very high-probability. disease-causing genes, a virus, bacteria. ani111a1, or person. In PCR, the enzyn1e that n01111ally copies DNA in cells is used 1n a test tube to an1plify DN A that lies between tv.,ro selected sequences along the chromosorne. These selected sequences are \vhere t\\/O single-stranded RNA molecules called prllners can bind with one strand of the DNA 111olecule. Prin1ers are cbenlically synthesized rno1ccules that playa role in cZltalyzing the reaction. produces many. many' copies ofthe DNA extending fr01n one prin1er sequence to the other.
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flow i,\ PCR u\ed to generate DiV4 fingerprint. . '.) hU1TWll genome contains ahout 3 hillion bi.1SC pairs. An analogy bctV\CCJl DNi\" and a railroad can help demonstrate its size. If each base pair represents by a rail tic and tie \\ere .2 feet apart then the track of the hU111an genorne \vould reach around the Earth more "+ i tinK's. \lIos! DI'\iA is identical rrom person to person, I!' vou \\CTC take real hurTlan DNA. cut it \\'1th restriction fragments and separate the hagments in a gel. the result \vouki be (l smear because there arc so many fi-agments that the h;Jnds overlap. Ho\', c\er. rnany
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This note was uploaded on 09/23/2011 for the course BIO 141 taught by Professor Brown during the Fall '08 term at Drexel.

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Lab 3 DNA - N anlC Section _ _ Day and Titne _ Lab \veek 10...

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