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01_overview_09_post3 - Planet Earth(01:460:100:04 Planet...

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Unformatted text preview: Planet Earth (01:460:100:04) Planet Earth (01:460:100:04) L e ctu re : T u e sd a y s & T h u rsd a y s, 1 :4 0 - 3 :0 0 p m ( s t u d e n t s m u s t b e p r e s e n t 1 :4 5 - 2 :5 5 ) , S E C - 1 1 1 Important: Students cannot receive credit for both this course (460:100) and Introductory Geology (460:101). Students who intend to major or minor in geology should take 460:101. In stru cto r: D r. R o y W . S ch lisch e O ffi ce : 2 3 4 W rig h t L a b s / B u sch C am pus O f fi c e H o u r s : T u /T h , 3 :0 0 - 3 :4 5 ; W , 2 :0 0 - 3 :3 0 ; o t h e r t i m e s b y a p p o in tm e n t T e le p h o n e : ( 7 3 2 ) 4 4 5 -3 1 4 2 E m a i l : s c h l i s c h @ r c i . r u t g e r s .e d u Photo: www.spacetoday.org L e c tu re 1 : 1 Equipment iC lick e r p e rso n a l re sp o n se sy ste m , a v a ila b le a t b o o k sto r e . M u st b e i C lick e r ; o th e r sy ste m s w ill n o t w o r k . Photo: www.spacetoday.org L e c tu re 1 : 2 iClicker registration http://www.iclicker .com/registration/ First name Last name For extra credit: students receive 1 point for each question answered (c o r r e c tly o r in c o r r e c tly ) in c la ss a n d 1 a d d itio n a l p o in t fo r e a c h c o r r e c t a n sw e r . S tu d e n ts m a y e a r n u p to 5 p e r c e n ta g e p o in ts o f e x tr a c r e d it fo r e a c h o f t h e 3 e x a m s . S t u d e n t s w h o d o n o t w is h t o e a r n e x t r a c r e d it d o n o t n e e d t o p u r c h a s e a c lic k e r . Student ID (your Rutgers ID#) Remote ID (on the back of the clicker) Note: You must be in class with your iClicker to receive extra credit. It is not possible to “make-up” the extra credit for any reason, including (but n o t lim ite d to ) e x c u se d a n d u n e x c u se d a b se n c e s, fo r g o tte n i C lic k e r s , a n d m a lfu n c tio n in g i C lic k e r s . L e c tu re 1 : 3 L e c tu re 1 : 4 Website: sakai.rutgers.edu T e x tb o o k Earth--Portrait of a Planet, 3rd or 2nd Edition by S. Marshak $120 new, $90 used Also available online & in downloadable format from: http://www.nortonebooks.com $40 Optional but highly recommended L e c tu re 1 : 5 L e c tu re 1 : 6 Downloads: PowerPoint & PDF files L e c tu re 1 : 7 L e c tu re 1 : 8 Basis for grade • Exam 1: 30%; Exam 2: 35%; Exam 3: 35% • Grades are posted in Gradebook section on Sakai. Course grades are calculated by Sakai using the percentages listed above, and letter grades are automatically assigned using the numerical scale listed below. • Sorry: No iClicker make-ups or additional extra-credit assignments for any reason A ! 9 0 ( 1 8 % o f g ra d e s fro m 1 9 9 8 to 2 0 0 7 ) 8 4 " B + < 90 ( 2 0% ) 7 8 " B < 84 ( 2 6% ) 7 2 " C + < 78 ( 1 7% ) 6 5 " C < 72 ( 1 2% ) 5 0 " D < 65 ( 4 % ) F < 50 ( 2 % ) L e c tu re 1 : 9 Quiz / Test Format • Multiple-choice and true-false questions. • Exams: 50 questions (assigned seating, no collaboration, 1 sheet of notes). • "Department policy is that no make-up exams will be given without WRITTEN documentation from a Rutgers University official." L e c tu re 1 : 1 0 How to do well in the course How to do well in the course • Attendance matters: Studies show the mean grade of students who attend 50% of lectures is a low “C”, whereas the mean grade of students who attend 100% of lectures is a high “B”. • Arrive on time for class (no later than 1:45) and remain until dismissed (no later than 2:55); take good notes and participate in class discussions. • Download and review the online notes and exercise questions before class. • Review all material in a timely manner before the exams. • Focus on understanding the material rather than memorizing it; if you don’t understand something, ask a question; many other students probably have the same question. L e c tu re 1 : 1 1 • Basic concepts and definitions are covered in PowerPoint files available on website (obtain & review before class). Class time is used to explore more challenging concepts, to work on exercises and review questions, and to view videos, animations, and demonstrations. You need to attend class to take additional notes and participate in the extra-credit review questions. Some material covered in class is not in the text, and vice versa. L e c tu re 1 : 1 2 Classroom Etiquette Classroom Etiquette Attendance: Students are expected to attend class. Falsification of an attendance record by signing another student's name or signing and then leaving class [or improper use of iClickers] is a breach of academic integrity. Personal Conversation: It is rude and disruptive to engage in personal conversation during class. Students who persist in this disruptive behavior may be asked to leave the class and may be penalized as absent. Refusal to leave class once requested will result in disciplinary action at the Dean's level. Cell phones and beepers must be turned off in class. No texting during class. Tardiness and Leaving Class Early: Students should try to not schedule courses on different campuses in adjacent periods. We recognize that some tardiness is inevitable; HOWEVER, habitually arriving in class late and departing early is disruptive and rude. We ask that you make every effort possible to get to class on time and, once there, STAY. L e c tu re 1 : 1 3 Academic Integrity: Our department fully endorses a notolerance cheating and plagiarism policy. If you are caught cheating, the instructor may fail you and request disciplinary action. Your Rights: We are all human, and instructors and students both make mistakes. If you feel that you have been treated unfairly, contact the department chair, Dr. Carl Swisher, [email protected] L e c tu re 1 : 1 4 Why study geology? What is geology? • Understand how and Geology is the study of the Earth. why the Earth works. Why do volcanoes erupt? What causes earthquakes? • Understand, predict, or protect from natural hazards (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, floods, landslides). Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica. Photo: G.G. Dimijian Photo: www.spacetoday.org L e c tu re 1 : 1 5 L e c tu re 1 : 1 6 Why study geology? • Understand how and why the Earth works. Why do volcanoes erupt? What causes earthquakes? • Understand, predict, or protect from natural hazards (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, floods, landslides). 1 9 8 5 M e x ico C ity e a rth q u a k e . Photo: O. Franken L e c tu re 1 : 1 7 Why study geology? • Understand how and why the Earth works. Why do volcanoes erupt? What causes earthquakes? • Understand, predict, or protect from natural hazards (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, floods, landslides). 1996 flood in L iu z h o u , C h in a . L e c tu re 1 : 1 8 Why study geology? • Understand how and why the Earth works. Why do volcanoes erupt? What causes earthquakes? • Understand, predict, or protect from natural hazards (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, floods, landslides). Photo: X. Jiahua Why study geology? • Understand how and why natural resources form and where to look for them. L a n d slid e in C a lifo rn ia . Photo: Geophoto L e c tu re 1 : 1 9 Photo: Chevron L e c tu re 1 : 2 0 In-class exercise Q 1 . W h a t ty p e o f d ia g ra m is th is? A . b lo c k d ia g r a m B . c r o s s s e c t io n In-class exercise C . g ra p h D. m ap Q2. What do the colors represent? A. Age of rocks (red is older, blue is younger) B. Different types of rocks (red & orange = igneous; yellow & green = metamorphic; blues = sedimentary) C. Elevation above or below sea level (red is high, blue is deep) D. Temperature (red is hotter, blue is colder) F ig . 2 .7 L e c tu re 1 : 2 1 F ig . 2 .7 L e c tu re 1 : 2 2 In-class exercise In-class exercise Q 3 a . W h e re is th e h ig h e st e le v a tio n ? A . A f r ic a B . A s ia C . A t la n t ic O c e a n D . E u ro p e E . P a c if ic O c e a n Q 3 b . W h e re is th e lo w e st e le v a tio n ? A . A f r ic a B . A s ia C . A t la n t ic O c e a n D . E u ro p e E . P a c if ic O c e a n F ig . 2 .7 L e c tu re 1 : 2 3 F ig . 2 .7 L e c tu re 1 : 2 4 Overview of geology In-class exercise Earthquake: vibration caused by sudden breaking or sliding of rock Q 5 . W h a t b e st d e scrib e s th e d istrib u tio n o f e a rth q u a k e s? F ig . 4 .5 A . T h e y a r e u n if o r m ly d is t r ib u t e d . B . T h e y a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d in c e r t a in n a r r o w r e g io n s o r b e lt s . Fig. 10.1 L e c tu re 1 : 2 5 L e c tu re 1 : 2 6 Overview of geology In-class exercise Volcano: opening from which molten rock from inside the Earth spews out onto Earth’s surface; mountain built up from materials ejected from opening Q 5 . W h a t b e st d e scrib e s th e d istrib u tio n o f v o lca n o e s? A . T h e y a r e u n if o r m ly d is t r ib u t e d . B . T h e y a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d in c e r t a in b e lt s . C . T h e y a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d in t h e s a m e r e g io n s a s e a r t h q u a k e s a r e . M t. S t. H e le n s e ru p tio n , M a y 1 8 , 1980. Photo: USGS. L e c tu re 1 : 2 7 L e c tu re 1 : 2 8 Plate Tectonics In-class exercise Q6. What is the relationship between the edges of plates and the distribution of earthquakes? A. Most earthquakes occur on or near the edges of plates. B. Most earthquakes are found in the interior of plates. C. Both A & B. D. Neither A nor B. • Earth’s surface is divided into multiple plates • Plates move with respect to one another F ig . 4 .4 L e c tu re 1 : 2 9 Plate Tectonics: Types of Motion • Divergent: move apart F ig s . 4 .4 & 4 .5 L e c tu re 1 : 3 0 • Convergent: move toward one another • Conservative (transform): slide past one another In-class exercise Q 7 . W h a t ty p e o f d ia g ra m is th is? A . b lo c k d ia g r a m B . c r o s s s e c t io n C . g ra p h D. m ap T o p v ie w (m a p v ie w ) S id e v ie w (c ro s s s e c tio n v ie w ) F ig . 4 .6 L e c tu re 1 : 3 1 L e c tu re 1 : 3 2 S id e v ie w (c ro s s s e c tio n v ie w ) Plate Tectonics Plate Tectonics T y p e s o f p la t e b o u n d a r ie s T y p e s o f p la t e b o u n d a r ie s • Divergent: plates move apart • Divergent: plates move apart F ig . 4 .4 E x a m p le : M id - A t la n t ic R id g e • Hot material rises between plates • New material added to plates F ig . 4 .6 L e c tu re 1 : 3 3 L e c tu re 1 : 3 4 In-class exercise Plate Tectonics T y p e s o f p la t e b o u n d a r ie s Q 8 . W h e re i s th e M id -A tla n tic rid g e lo ca te d o n th e d ia g ra m b e lo w ? • Convergent: plates move toward one another D A B C • One plate dives beneath other • Material is lost from surface of Earth F ig . 4 .6 F ig . 2 .7 L e c tu re 1 : 3 5 L e c tu re 1 : 3 6 Block diagram Plate Tectonics In-class exercise T y p e s o f p la t e b o u n d a r ie s Q 9 . W h e re i s th e S o u th A m e rica n s u b d u ctio n z o n e lo ca te d o n th is m a p ? • Convergent: plates move toward one another Example: South American subduction zone--Nazca plate dives under South American plate D A Andes B C F ig . 2 .7 F ig . 4 .4 L e c tu re 1 : 3 7 L e c tu re 1 : 3 8 Plate Tectonics Plate Tectonics T y p e s o f p la t e b o u n d a r ie s • Conservative (transform): plates slide past one another • EQ’s occur where plates scrape past one another T y p e s o f p la t e b o u n d a r ie s • Conservative (transform): plates slide past one another • Material is neither added nor lost Example: San Andreas fault--North American plate slides past Pacific plate F ig . 4 .6 L e c tu re 1 : 3 9 Q 1 0 . W h a t m o u n ta in ra n g e is lo ca te d n e a r th is s u b d u ctio n z o n e ? a . A lp s b . A ndes c . A p p a la ch ia n s d . H im a la y a Block diagram L e c tu re 1 : 4 0 F ig . 4 .1 8 In-class exercise E a r t h ’ s la y e r s Q 1 1 . W h a t ty p e o f d ia g ra m is sh o w n a t rig h t? A . b lo c k d ia g r a m B . c r o s s s e c t io n C . g ra p h D. m ap F ig . 4 .1 8 Solid: rocks that make up the Earth Liquid: the oceans Gas: the atmosphere Animation of plate tectonics Photo: www.spacetoday.org L e c tu re 1 : 4 1 L e c tu re 1 : 4 2 Exercise Crust 8 to 75 km Q 1 2 . W h a t ty p e o f d ia g ra m is th is? A . b lo c k d ia g r a m B . c r o s s s e c t io n C . g ra p h D. m ap E a r th ’ s L a y e r s Crust 8 to 75 km Crust: outermost solid layer of the Earth Mantle Mantle Mantle: middle layer of the Earth Core: central region of the Earth Crust 2900 km Mantle • Layers are arranged as concentric shells Core 2900 km Mantle Core 6370 km 6370 km Layers based on chemical composition L e c tu re 1 : 4 3 Crust Layers based on chemical composition L e c tu re 1 : 4 4 In-class exercise • Crust, mantle, and core have different compositions Q 1 3 a . H o w m u ch S iO 2 is p re se n t in t h e m a n tle ? A . ~0% B . ~25% C . ~50% D . ~75% Q 1 3 b . H o w m u ch S iO 2 is p re se n t in t h e c o re ? A . ~0% B . ~25% C . ~50% D . ~75% L e c tu re 1 : 4 5 Mechanical Layering • Lithosphere: strong, rigid outer layer • Asthenosphere: weak layer beneath the lithosphere • Outer core: liquid part of core • Inner core: solid part of core L e c tu re 1 : 4 6 Plate Tectonics & Mechanical Layering Plates consist of strong lithosphere that rides on and moves over weak asthenosphere Big and small numbers Q14. Which of these is the largest quantity? A. 150,000,000 kg B. 1.5x109 kg C. 1.6x10-9 kg p. 5 1 L e c tu re 1 : 4 7 L e c tu re 1 : 4 8 Big and small numbers 1013= 10,000,000,000,000 m Big and small numbers 10-1=1/10=0.1 m 1 0 4 = 1 0 x 1 0 x 1 0 x 1 0 = 1 0 ,0 0 0 m 10-2=1/(10x10)=0.01 m 10-9=0.000000001 m L e c tu re 1 : 4 9 L e c tu re 1 : 5 0 Conversions Solid Earth Materials How does a typical automobile speed (60 mph) compare to a typical plate velocity (2 cm/yr)? Convert 60 miles/hour into cm/yr 6 0 m ile s 1 .6 k m 1 000 m 1 00 cm 2 4 h o u rs 3 65 days x x x x x 1 hour 1 m ile 1 km 1m 1 day 1 year = 8x1010 cm/yr Mineral: naturally occurring solid material with a definite chemical composition and internal arrangement of atoms. Amethyst crystals. Photo: C. Clark L e c tu re 1 : 5 1 L e c tu re 1 : 5 2 Thre e T y pe s o f R oc k s Solid Earth Materials Rock: a coherent, naturally occurring solid made up of an aggregate of minerals. Half Dome, Yosemite National Park. Photo: USGS Igneous rocks: rocks formed by the solidification of molten material. Granite. Photo: C. Clark Lava tube, Hawaii. Photo: USGS L e c tu re 1 : 5 3 L e c tu re 1 : 5 4 Thre e T y pe s o f R oc k s Thre e T y pe s o f R oc k s Sedimentary rocks: rocks formed by the accumulation of material derived from other rocks Metamorphic rocks: rocks formed by the transformation of other rocks in the solid state by high temperature & pressure Photo: iStockPhoto.com Photo: B.P. Kent L e c tu re 1 : 5 5 Photo:www.maine.gov Gneiss. Photo: R.M. Busch L e c tu re 1 : 5 6 Ancient Earth • Earth’s history: subdivided into named periods. • Earth is 4,570,000,000 years old. Uniqueness of Geology • Interdisciplinary--integrates astronomy, chemistry, biology, and physics into studying the Earth. • Historical perspective: use rocks to interpret Earth’s long history Fig. P.5 L e c tu re 1 : 5 7 Review Questions 1-1. Crust is consumed (lost) at which type of plate boundary? A. Divergent B. Convergent C. Conservative 1-2. A. True / B. False: Earthquakes do not occur along transform plate boundaries. 1-3. A. True / B. False: The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is an example of a convergent plate boundary. 1-4. A. True / B. False: Most earthquake and volcanic activity occurs at plate boundaries. 1-5. At what type of boundary is crust neither created nor destroyed? A. divergent B. convergent C. transform 1-6. Approximately how many major tectonic plates are present today on Earth? A. 1 B. 5 C. 15 D. 150 L e c tu re 1 : 5 9 L e c tu re 1 : 5 8 Review Questions 1-7. The innermost of the Earth's layers defined by composition is the: A. Crust B. Mantle C. Core 1-8. Which of the following statements about the Earth's lithosphere is false? A. The lithosphere is the outermost of Earth’s mechanical layers. B. The lithosphere includes the crust and uppermost mantle. C. The lithosphere is relatively weak and non-rigid. D. All of the above. 1-9. This Earth layer defined by mechanical properties is entirely liquid: A. Lithosphere B. Asthenosphere C. Mantle D. Outer core E. Inner core 1-10. A. True / B. False: Igneous rocks form from the solidification of molten material. 1-11. The Earth is approximately ___ years old. A. 4.5x103 B. 4.5x106 C. 4.5x109 D. 4.5x1012 L e c tu re 1 : 6 0 Review Questions Questions 1-12 and 1-13 refer to the map in Figure 4.4 (e.g., slide 28). 1-12. The western edge of the South American plate is mostly a ___ plate boundary. A. conservative B. convergent C. divergent 1-13. The eastern margin of the North American plate is mostly a ___ plate boundary. A. conservative B. convergent C. divergent 1-14. The percentage of iron in the Earth’s core is approximately A. 15% B. 33% C. 85% D. 0% 1-15. If it were possible for you to drive to the center of the Earth at a constant rate of 60 miles per hour, how many hours would the trip take? [Hint: See slide 44.] A. 30 hours B. 54 hours C. 66 hours D. 170 hours L e c tu re 1 : 6 1 ...
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