02_minerals_09_post

02_minerals_09_post - 1 Lecture 2 1 Lecture 2 Minerals...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Lecture 2: 1 Lecture 2: Minerals Halite crystals. Photo: C.D. Winter Lecture 2: 2 Why is this topic important? • Earth is made of rocks, which are composed of minerals. Minerals provide clues to the origin of rocks and vice versa. • Ore minerals are the source for valuable metals such as copper, gold & silver and energy sources such as uranium. • Industrial minerals serve as the raw materials for manufacturing. • Gem quality minerals give the sparkle to jewelry. Native sulfur www.treasuremountainmining.com/ Native gold St. John et al. (1984) Emerald (beryl) O’Neil et al. (1983) Lecture 2: 3 Basics: Chemical elements • Elements : the most fundamental substances into which matter can be separated and analyzed by ordinary chemical means • Atom : smallest particle that still retains the distinctive properties of a given element. • Atoms of different elements have different numbers and arrangements of protons, neutrons, and electrons Lecture 2: 4 Basics: Chemical elements • Each element has a unique chemical symbol Element (symbol) Percent by weight in crust Oxygen (O) 45.2% Silicon (Si) 27.2% Aluminum (Al) 8.0% Iron (Fe) 5.8% Calcium (Ca) 5.1% Magnesium (Mg) 2.8% Sodium (Na) 2.3% Potassium (K) 1.7% Titanium (Ti) 0.9% Hydrogen (H) 0.1% 2 Lecture 2: 5 Basics: Atomic structure • Nucleus : core of the atom containing protons and neutrons • Proton : particle with mass and a positive charge. • Neutron : particle with mass and no charge. • Electrons : particle with negligible mass and a negative charge that orbit the nucleus in speciFc shells. • Atoms of same element have the same number of protons • Atomic number : number of protons in an element. • For example, carbon always has 6 protons; its atomic number is 6. Fig. a.4 Lecture 2: 6 Basics: Atomic structure • Isotopes : atoms of the same element with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. Fig. a.7 Lecture 2: 7 Basics: Atomic structure • Electrons circle the nucleus in orbitals • Orbitals may not be completely filled • 1st orbital : contains a maximum of 2 electrons • 2nd orbital : contains a maximum of 8 electrons Fig. a.5 Lecture 2: 8 Basics: Physical properties • Density • Luster, color, streak • Hardness • Crystal form • Cleavage Quartz crystals. Photo: B.P. Kent Calcite crystals. www.dkimages.com 2 Lecture 2: 5 Basics: Atomic structure • Nucleus : core of the atom containing protons and neutrons • Proton : particle with mass and a positive charge. • Neutron : particle with mass and no charge. • Electrons : particle with negligible mass and a negative charge that orbit the nucleus in speciFc shells. • Atoms of same element have the same number of protons • Atomic number : number of protons in an element....
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02_minerals_09_post - 1 Lecture 2 1 Lecture 2 Minerals...

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