02_minerals_09_post

02_minerals_09_post - Lecture 2: Minerals...

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cture 2: 1 Lecture 2: Minerals Halite crystals.  Photo: C.D. Winter
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cture 2: 2 Why is this topic important?  Earth is made of rocks, which are composed of minerals. Minerals  provide clues to the origin of rocks and vice versa.  Ore minerals are the source for valuable metals such as copper, gold   Industrial minerals serve as the raw materials for manufacturing.  Gem quality minerals give the sparkle to jewelry. Native sulfur www.treasuremountainmining.com/ Native gold St. John et al. (1984) Emerald (beryl) O’Neil et al. (1983)
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cture 2: 3 Basics: Chemical elements   Elements : the most fundamental substances into which matter can  be separated and analyzed by ordinary chemical means   Atom : smallest particle that still retains the distinctive properties  of a given element. Atoms of different elements have different numbers and arrangements of protons, neutrons, and electrons
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cture 2: 4 Basics: Chemical elements Each element has a unique chemical symbol Element (symbol) Percent by weight in crust  Oxygen (O) 45.2%  Silicon (Si) 27.2% Aluminum (Al) 8.0% Iron (Fe) 5.8% Calcium (Ca) 5.1% Magnesium (Mg) 2.8% Sodium (Na) 2.3% Potassium (K) 1.7% Titanium (Ti) 0.9% Hydrogen (H) 0.1%
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cture 2: 5 Basics: Atomic structure   Nucleus : core of the atom containing  protons and neutrons   Proton : particle with mass and a  positive charge.   Neutron : particle with mass and no  charge.   Electrons : particle with negligible  mass and a negative charge that orbit  the nucleus in specific shells. Atoms of same element have the same number of protons   Atomic number : number of protons in  an element.   For example, carbon always has 6 protons; its atomic number is 6. Fig. a.4
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cture 2: 6 Basics: Atomic structure   Isotopes : atoms of the same element with the same number of  protons but different numbers of neutrons. Fig. a.7
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cture 2: 7 Basics: Atomic structure Electrons circle the nucleus in orbitals Orbitals may not be completely filled 1st orbital : contains a maximum of 2 electrons 2nd orbital : contains a maximum of 8 electrons Fig. a.5
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cture 2: 8 Basics: Physical properties  Density  Luster, color, streak  Hardness  Crystal form  Cleavage Quartz crystals.  Photo: B.P. Kent Calcite crystals.  www.dkimages.com
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cture 2: 9 Basics: Physical properties   Density mass per unit  volume Quartz crystals.  Photo: B.P. Kent Calcite crystals.  www.dkimages.com quartz, 2.63 g/cm 3 calcite, 2.71 g/cm 3
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cture 2: 10 Basics: Physical properties •  Luster : how a mineral reflects light Calcite.  Photo:  C. Clark Pyrite crystals.  Photo: R.M.  Busch Metallic Glassy See Fig. 5.18
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cture 2: 11 Basics: Physical properties--Color
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02_minerals_09_post - Lecture 2: Minerals...

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