08a_volcanoes_09_post

08a_volcanoes_09_post - Exam 1 Review Conservative...

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Unformatted text preview: Exam 1 Review Conservative Convergent Exam 1 Review Divergent Plate motion A. Move closer together B. Move farther apart C. Slide past each other A. Move closer together B. Move farther apart C. Slide past each other A. Move closer together B. Move farther apart C. Slide past each other Crustal volume A. Addition B. Loss C. Neither A. Addition B. Loss C. Neither A. Addition B. Loss C. Neither Main feature A. Mid-ocean ridge B. Transform fault C. Trench A. Mid-ocean ridge B. Transform fault C. Trench A. Mid-ocean ridge B. Transform fault C. Trench Magma type A. Andesitic-rhyolitic B. Basaltic C. None A. Andesitic-rhyolitic B. Basaltic C. None A. Andesitic-rhyolitic B. Basaltic C. None A. Add water B. Decrease pressure C. Raise temperature D. None A. Add water B. Decrease pressure C. Raise temperature D. None A. Add water B. Decrease pressure C. Raise temperature D. None Melting cause L e c tu re 8 : 1 08: Volcanoes Which rock type only forms at the Earth’s surface? A. igneous B. metamorphic C. sedimentary Which rock type only forms at depth? A. igneous B. metamorphic C. sedimentary Which rock type forms at both the surface and at depth? A. igneous B. metamorphic C. sedimentary Which rock type is most useful for fossil correlation? A. igneous B. metamorphic C. sedimentary Which rock type is most useful for absolute dating? A. igneous B. metamorphic C. sedimentary L e c tu re 8 : 2 Why is this topic important? • Distribution of most volcanoes is related to boundaries between tectonic plates Fig. 6.19 ( v o lc a n o e s a b o v e s e a le v e l) L e c tu re 8 : 3 Mt. St. Helens eruption, May 18, 1980. Photo: USGS. Note: Numerous small volcanoes are present along spreading centers; larger volcanoes make up most seamounts (submerged volcanic islands) L e c tu re 8 : 4 Why is this topic important? Why is this topic important? • Volcanism forms a significant geologic hazard • Lava reveals hints about the composition and pressuretemperature conditions of rocks that melted. S tu d y in g la v a fl o w , K ila u e a , H a w a ii Santorini (Thera), Greece (eruption ~3500 BC). Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Photos: R.W. Schlische Eruption may have wiped out Minoan civilization Photo: M. Krafft L e c tu re 8 : 5 L e c tu re 8 : 6 Why is this topic important? • Volcanism forms a significant geologic hazard Why is this topic important? • Volcanic eruptions affect climate and were responsible for forming Earth's atmosphere. Pompeii & Vesuvius, Italy (Eruption 79 AD). U n d ersea e ru p tio n p ro d u ce s ste a m Photos: R.W. Schlische L e c tu re 8 : 7 L e c tu re 8 : 8 Why is this topic important? • Igneous processes form a variety of mineral deposits and contribute geothermal energy. Why is this topic important? • Igneous processes form a variety of mineral deposits and contribute geothermal energy. Photos: R.W. Schlische L e c tu re 8 : 9 S u lfu r d e p o sits o n S ie rro N e g ro V o lca n o , Galapagos Islands. Photo: C. Grzimek Volcano geometry Y e llo w sto n e N a tio n a l P a rk , Wyoming. Photos: R.W. Schlische L e c tu re 8 : 1 0 Volcano geometry • Volcano: constructional feature built up around a vent through which magma escapes to the surface. • M agm a w it h d r a w a l - - > c o lla p s e - - > d e p r e s s io n • C a ld e ra : la rg e d e p re ssio n • Crater: small d e p re ssio n Fig. 9.10 Fig. 9.10 • Multiple flows build up cone L e c tu re 8 : 1 1 L e c tu re 8 : 1 2 Volcano geometry Volcano geometry • Magma withdrawal --> collapse --> depression Crater Caldera El Misti volcano, near Arequipa, Peru. Photos: R.W. Schlische Photo: F. Villa Photo: G. Vaughn L e c tu re 8 : 1 3 L e c tu re 8 : 1 4 Volcano size and shape Volcano size and shape Q3. What is the average slope angle of the right side of Mauna Loa? A. 5° B. 30° C. 50° D. 60° E. 85° Q1. Which volcano is smallest? A. Mauna Loa B. Mt. Rainier C. Sunset Crater Q2. Which volcano has the gentlest average slope? A. Mauna Loa B. Mt. Rainier C. Sunset Crater L e c tu re 8 : 1 5 Q4. What is the slope angle of the upper left side of Mt. Rainier? A. 5° B. 30° C. 50° D. 60° E. 85° Q5. What is the average slope angle of the upper left side of Sunset Crater? A. 5° B. 30° C. 50° D. 60° E. 85° L e c tu re 8 : 1 6 Types of volcanoes Types of volcanoes • S h ie ld v o lc a n o e s: v e r y b r o a d v o lc a n o w ith s u r f a c e s lo p e s o f < 1 0 ° p ro d u ce d b y e ru p tio n o f b a sa ltic la v a Fig. 9.11a Viewing direction for next slide Mauna Loa, Hawaii Olympic Mons, Mars. NASA Photo: USGS L e c tu re 8 : 1 7 L e c tu re 8 : 1 8 Types of volcanoes Types of volcanoes Mauna Kea Haleakala Volcano, Maui, Hawaii. Mauna Loa Photos : R.W. Schlische Shield volcano (top) with parasitic cinder cones (right) in caldera Both are shield volcanoes; note calderas on Mauna Loa L e c tu re 8 : 1 9 “Big Island” of Hawaii in 3D Photo: USGS L e c tu re 8 : 2 0 Types of volcanoes Types of volcanoes: cinder cones • Cinder (tephra) cones: generally small volcanoes built up of pyroclastic material, generally of andesitic to rhyolitic composition, with surface slopes of 25° to 50° Formation of cinder cone during 1985 eruption from Pu’u ‘O’o vent, Kilauea. Photo: USGS L e c tu re 8 : 2 1 Photo: M. Hurd L e c tu re 8 : 2 2 Types of volcanoes Mt. Fuji, Japan Mt. St. Helens, Washington, USA L e c tu re 8 : 2 3 Cerro Negro, Nicaragua. Types of volcanoes: stratovolcanoes • Composite volcanoes (stratovolcanoes): very large volcano composed of alternating lava flows and pyroclastic material, generally of andesitic composition, with surface slopes of 30° at the summit and 6°-10° at the base Fig. 9.11 Mt. Rainier (composite volcano) and Tacoma, Washington. Photo: J. McAnulty L e c tu re 8 : 2 4 Types of volcanoes Types of volcanoes • Lava dome: bulbous mass of highly viscous, gas-poor lava extruded like toothpaste from a volcano Fig. 9.12 Largest; gentlest slopes Smallest; steepest slopes Fig. 6.7 Photo: L. Topinka/USGS L e c tu re 8 : 2 5 L e c tu re 8 : 2 6 Volcano types 5 km Q6. Volcano A is a ____. A. cinder cone B. lava dome C. shield volcano D. stratovolcano A Q7. Volcano B is a ____. A. cinder cone B. lava dome C. shield volcano D. stratovolcano 0.5 km Q8. Volcano C is a ____. A. cinder cone B. lava dome C. shield volcano D. stratovolcano B 25 km C L e c tu re 8 : 2 7 ...
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