10_quakes_09_post

10_quakes_09_post - 10: Earthquakes & Earths Interior...

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rthquakes: 1 10: Earthquakes & Earth’s Interior Structure Fig. 10-29c: 1999 6.0 earthquake, Armenia; Photo: Reuters
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rthquakes: 2 09/30/2009 Indonesia Earthquake
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rthquakes: 3 09/30/2009 Indonesia Earthquake
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rthquakes: 4 09/30/2009 Indonesia Earthquake
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rthquakes: 5 Why this is important    Earthquakes are a destructive, lethal natural hazard Photo: AP Photo: AP
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rthquakes: 6    Distribution of earthquakes defines plate boundaries Fig. 10.20 Why this is important
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rthquakes: 7    Earthquake waves are like X-rays, allowing us to decipher  internal structure of Earth Fig. D.10 Why this is important
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rthquakes: 8 What is an earthquake? Ground vibrations (waves) produced by  sudden movement along a fault
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rthquakes: 9   Elastic rebound theory stress builds up, rock  bends, reaches a critical  value, and then breaks  and moves suddenly. Fig. 10.1 What is an earthquake?
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rthquakes: 10 10   Focus (Hypocenter) : point of initial rupture or slip   Epicenter : point on Earth’s surface above focus What is an earthquake? For large faults, entire fault surface does not slip at once; rather, smaller patches may slip at different times. Two slip patches (red) each have a focus and an epicenter; seismic waves only shown for earthquake A. Fig. 10.4
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rthquakes: 11 11 Seismic waves   Primary (P or push-pull) waves  travel by alternately  compressing and expanding rocks in the direction of  propagation of the wave; similar to sound waves. Fig. 10.12
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rthquakes: 12 12 Fig. 10.12 Seismic waves   Primary (P or push-pull) waves  travel by alternately  compressing and expanding (dilating) rocks in the direction of  propagation of the wave; similar to sound waves. Propagation direction Propagation direction
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rthquakes: 13 13   Secondary (S or shear) wave s  travel by shearing rock particles  sideways relative to the direction of propagation of the wave. Fig. 10.12 Seismic waves
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rthquakes: 14 14 Fig. 10.12 Seismic waves   Secondary (S or shear) waves  travel by shearing rock particles  sideways relative to the direction of propagation of the wave. Propagation direction Propagation direction
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rthquakes: 15 15     P & S waves --  P & S waves --  body waves body waves  because they travel through Earth  because they travel through Earth     P-waves travel 1.6x faster than S-waves. Fig. 10.16 Seismic waves
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rthquakes: 16 16     Surface waves:   seismic waves that travel at or near the  Earth's surface, causing it shear from side to side and up  and down. side to side shearing up/down shearing Fig. 10.12 Seismic waves
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rthquakes: 17 17 Fig. 10.14 Recording seismic waves   Seismograph:  instrument that measures seismic waves.
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10_quakes_09_post - 10: Earthquakes & Earths Interior...

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