21_hazards1_09_post

21_hazards1_09_post - zards 1: zards 1: 1 21: Natural...

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Unformatted text preview: zards 1: zards 1: 1 21: Natural Hazards 1 Landslides, Floods, Storm Surges Landslide induced by 1964 Alaska earthquake. Photo: S. MacCutcheon Mississippi flooding New Orleans in May 1979. Photo: R. Peterson Beach erosion caused by Hurricane Hugo, South Carolina. Photo: D.M. Busch / O.H. Pilkey, Jr. zards 1: zards 1: 2 Landslides • More property damage is attributed to landslides than any other environmental factor. • In the U.S., landslides cause 25-50 deaths and $1-2 billion in property damage each year. • Mass movement / mass wasting : Downhill movement of regolith and/ or rock under the direct influence of gravity , i.e., without a transporting medium (water, wind, or ice). zards 1: zards 1: 3 Types of mass movement • Falls : very fast free-fall of rock and soil fragments through air, out of direct contact with slope. Rock fall, Zion National Park, Utah. Photo: S. Allred p. 573 zards 1: zards 1: 4 • Avalanches : fast downslope flow of rock or debris mixed with air that rides on a cushion of compressed air . p. 573 2002: Rock avalanche triggered by earthquake along Denali fault partially covers Black Rapids glacier. Photo: D. Trabant /USGS. Types of mass movement zards 1: zards 1: 5 Fig. 16.1 • Avalanches : fast downslope flow of rock or debris mixed with air that rides on a cushion of compressed air . Types of mass movement 1970: Debris avalanche triggered by earthquake in Peru traveled 17 km at 280 km/hr ; consisted of up to 100 cubic meters of water, mud and rocks; and killed 66,700 persons in the towns of Yungay and Ranrahirca at the base of Mt. Huascarán. Photos: L. Cluff. zards 1: zards 1: 6 • Slides : moderately fast downslope movement of relatively intact blocks of rock or debris; sliding takes place on a specific surface (e.g., bedding plane) Debris slide in valley in Kyrgystan. Photo: M. Miller Types of mass movement Fig. 16.15 zards 1: zards 1: 7 Types of mass movement Lahar Lahar : volcanic : volcanic mudflow mudflow (Mud)flows : fast movements of rock, soil, and water as a fluid mixture p. 573 zards 1: zards 1: 8 15-m-high mudflow produced by seismic shaking of slopes weakened by heavy rain , Tadzhikistan, 1989. Photo: V. Shone Types of mass movement zards 1: zards 1: 9 Slump in soil, Sheridan, Wyoming. Photo: E.R. Degginger p. 572 Types of mass movement • • Slumps : intact blocks of rocks or unconsolidated debris that slide downward and tilt backward along concave-upward sliding surfaces zards 1: zards 1: 10 10 Fig. 16.2 Types Photo: W.K. Hamblin • Creep : very slow downhill movement of rock and soil, recognized by tilted gravestones & utility poles , curving tree trunks , etc. zards 1:...
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This note was uploaded on 09/25/2011 for the course GEOLOGY 100 taught by Professor Lepre during the Fall '11 term at Rutgers.

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21_hazards1_09_post - zards 1: zards 1: 1 21: Natural...

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