21_hazards1_09_post - 21 Natural Hazards 1 Landslides...

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zards 1: zards 1: 1 21: Natural Hazards 1 Landslides, Floods, Storm Surges Landslide induced by 1964 Alaska earthquake. Photo:  S. MacCutcheon Mississippi  flooding  New  Orleans in  May 1979.  Photo: R.  Peterson Beach erosion caused by Hurricane Hugo, South  Carolina. Photo: D.M. Busch / O.H. Pilkey, Jr.
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zards 1: zards 1: 2 Landslides More property damage is attributed to landslides than any other environmental factor. In the U.S., landslides cause 25-50 deaths and $1-2 billion in property damage each year. Mass movement / mass  wasting : Downhill  movement of regolith and/ or rock under the  direct  influence of gravity , i.e.,  without a transporting  medium (water, wind, or  ice).
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zards 1: zards 1: 3 Types of mass movement •  Falls very fast  free-fall of rock and soil fragments through air, out of direct  contact with slope. Rock fall, Zion  National Park,  Utah.  Photo: S. Allred p. 573
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zards 1: zards 1: 4 •  Avalanches fast  downslope flow of  rock or debris mixed with air that  rides on a cushion of compressed air . p. 573 2002: Rock avalanche  triggered by earthquake  along  Denali fault partially covers Black Rapids glacier.  Photo: D. Trabant /USGS. Types of mass movement
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zards 1: zards 1: 5 Fig. 16.1 •  Avalanches fast  downslope  flow of rock or debris mixed  with air that  rides on a  cushion of compressed air . Types of mass movement 1970: Debris avalanche  triggered  by earthquake  in Peru  traveled 17  km at 280 km/hr ; consisted of up to  100 cubic meters of water, mud  and rocks; and killed 66,700  persons in the towns of Yungay  and Ranrahirca at the base of Mt.  Huascar á n. Photos: L. Cluff.
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zards 1: zards 1: 6 •  Slides moderately fast  downslope  movement of  relatively intact blocks  of  rock or debris; sliding takes place on  a specific surface (e.g., bedding plane) Debris slide in valley in Kyrgystan. Photo: M. Miller Types of mass movement Fig. 16.15
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zards 1: zards 1: 7 Types of mass movement Lahar Lahar : volcanic  : volcanic  mudflow mudflow (Mud)flows fast  movements  of rock, soil, and water as a  fluid mixture p. 573
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zards 1: zards 1: 8 15-m-high mudflow produced by  seismic shaking  of slopes weakened by  heavy rain , Tadzhikistan, 1989.  Photo: V. Shone Types of mass movement
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zards 1: zards 1: 9 Slump in soil, Sheridan, Wyoming.  Photo:  E.R. Degginger p. 572 Types of mass movement •  •  Slumps intact blocks  of rocks or  unconsolidated debris that slide  downward and tilt backward  along  concave-upward sliding  surfaces
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zards 1: 10 Fig. 16.2 Types Photo: W.K. Hamblin •  Creep :   very slow  downhill movement  of rock and soil, recognized by  tilted  gravestones & utility poles curving tree  trunks , etc.
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zards 1: 11 Review Questions 21-1. Which of the following types of mass movement moves at the slowest rate?
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