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22_hazards2_09_post - 22 Natural Hazards 2 Earthquakes...

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Hazards 2: Hazards 2: 1 22: Natural Hazards 2 Earthquakes & Tsunamis Mexico City, 1985 Indian Ocean tsunami, 2004 Hazards 2: Hazards 2: 2 Earthquakes: largest Armenia, 1999 Northridge, CA, 1994 Kobe, Japan, 1995 Hazards 2: Hazards 2: 3 Hazards 2: Hazards 2: 4 Earthquake damage: offsets Fig. 10.6 3-meter offset of fence near Bolinas, CA, produced by 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Photo: G.K. Gilbert Fig. 10.1
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Hazards 2: Hazards 2: 5 Earthquake damage: shaking Fig. 10.27 Surface waves Hazards 2: Hazards 2: 6 Photo: California St. Univ. Freeway collapse, 1995 Kobe, Japan, earthquake. Photo: Reuters/Corbis EQ damage: shaking Hazards 2: Hazards 2: 7 (a) Concrete-slab or steel supports disconnect and supports disconnect and collapse collapse (b) Building Building’ s façade falls off (c) (c) Poorly supported bridge collapses collapses (d) Bridge span disconnects and collapses collapses Fig. 10.28 Earthquake damage: shaking Hazards 2: Hazards 2: 8 Earthquake damage: shaking Fig. 10.28 (e) Neighboring buildings collide and shatter; collide and shatter; floors inside a tall floors inside a tall building may collapse building may collapse (f) Concrete-block, brick Concrete-block, brick or adobe buildings or adobe buildings crack apart and crack apart and collapse collapse (g) (g) Steep cliff collapses, Steep cliff collapses, carrying buildings with carrying buildings with it it
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Hazards 2: Hazards 2: 9 Caused by ruptured gas lines (ruptured water lines add to problem) Fig. 10.33 Photo: AP Earthquake damage: fires Hazards 2: 10 San Francisco, 1906: most deaths caused by fire Fig. 10.25 Earthquake damage: fire Hazards 2: 11 Fig. 10.34 Earthquake damage: Tsunamis Hazards 2: 12 Liquefaction : shaking turns water-saturated sediment into quicksand; cannot support any structures built on it Fig. 10.32 Earthquake damage
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Hazards 2: 13 Liquefaction : shaking turns water-saturated sediment into quicksand; cannot support any structures built on it See Fig. 10.32 Earthquake damage Liquefied sediment expelled from fissure following earthquake. Photo: P.L. Kresan Hazards 2: 14 Fig. 10.31 Earthquake damage: landslides Liquefaction increases risk of landslides. Hazards 2: 15 1964 Alaska Earthquake. Photo: NGDC Earthquake damage: landslides Hazards 2: 16 Review Questions 22-1. The magnitude of the largest earthquake recorded this century is ___. A. 9.5 B. 9.2 C. 9.1 D. 9.0 22-2. A. True / B. False: The earthquake with the highest death toll also had the highest magnitude. 22-3. A. True / B. False: Only surface waves cause earthquake damage. 22-4. A. True / B. False: Virtually all of the deaths caused by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake occurred because poorly constructed buildings collapsed. 22-5. Which of the following is a type of damage related to earthquakes? A. Offsets of the land surface and shaking. B. Fires caused by ruptured gas lines. C. Landslides and liquefaction. D. Tsunamis. E. All of the above.
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Hazards 2: 17 Amount of damage depends on: 1. Magnitude 2. Depth below the surface… 3. Proximity to population centers 4. Style & quality of construction See Table 10.2 Hazards 2: 18 5. Nature of substrate --Solid rock: shakes only during passage of earthquake waves --Thick soils or unconsolidated sediment: Fig. 10.30b
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