23_hazards3_09_post

23_hazards3_09_post - 23: Natural Hazards 3 Volcanic...

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zards 3: zards 3: 1 23: Natural Hazards 3 Volcanic Eruptions
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zards 3: zards 3: 2 Direct hazards Fig. 9.5 Pyroclastic flows ( nuee ardente ) : mass of volcanic ash, gases, and other  volcanic fragments that flows downslope at great speed (100-300 km/hr). --30% of all fatalities related to volcanoes (greatest lethal hazard)
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zards 3: zards 3: 3 Direct hazards: Pyroclastic flows Mount Unzen, Japan, June 1991. Photo: AP Pyroclastic flows : mass of volcanic ash, gases,  and other volcanic fragments that flows  downslope at great speed (100-300 km/hr) Fig. 9.22e
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zards 3: zards 3: 4 Mt. Pelee, Martinique (Caribbean), 1902,  28,000 fatalities Direct hazards: Pyroclastic flows
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Direct hazards: Tsunamis 20% of all fatalities related to volcanoes Fig. 10.36
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Fig. 9.15 Krakatau,  Indonesia, 1883,  almost  36,000  fatalities Anak Krakatau, 2007 Direct hazards: Tsunamis 2/3 of volcano blown away 1883: Tsunamis generated by massive explosion and water rushing into caldera Amount of material blown out of volcano (including parts of volcano  itself) in  cubic km
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zards 3: zards 3: 7 Direct volcanic hazards Lahars : volcanic mudflows; travel at speeds of >50  km/hr. ~15% of all fatalities Ash mixes with melting snow / ice Ash mixes with melting snow / ice Photo:  J. Marso
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zards 3: zards 3: 8 Other direct hazards: 10% Volcanic gases--may poison people and livestock   Lake Nyos, Cameroon, 1986;  1742 fatalities CO 2 : denser than air; hugged ground; caused suffocation Fig. 9.23
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Volcanic ash may bury crops and collapse roofs (ash mixed with water is like cement). Mt. Pinatubo,  Philippines, 1991,  200-800 fatalities Fig. 9.22d Other direct hazards: 10%
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zards 3: zards 3: 10 10 Volcanic ash--hazard to aviation; clogs jet engines Other direct hazards
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Lava flows may bury roads, burn houses, cover farm fields; very few fatalities Fig. 9.22a Other direct hazards
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zards 3: zards 3: 12 12 Photo: USGS Other direct hazards Lava flows may bury roads, burn houses, cover farm fields; extensive property damage
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zards 3: zards 3: 13 13 Indirect volcanic hazards: ~25% Disruption of transportation and destruction of crops
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This note was uploaded on 09/25/2011 for the course GEOLOGY 100 taught by Professor Lepre during the Fall '11 term at Rutgers.

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23_hazards3_09_post - 23: Natural Hazards 3 Volcanic...

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