Coffman - Buffalo Commons

Coffman - Buffalo Commons - $4.95 US I: 3E The Block Biron

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Unformatted text preview: $4.95 US I: 3E The Block Biron §————'—"' _ Rick Ham on Round River 5% E——==———' Threo’renod Eos’rern Old Growth FEE. Conservation ond Firs’r Nofion Rolorions % In Wendell Berry on Prrvoro Proporry ond #39 Common Woorrh WELD asters _ _ I in. - . e' 'h' i '4' I H {It a i ' FALI. 3995 1ii'IlL'I‘LUl'i'rE 5, NUMBER 3 WM) EflTttiISSN 10551 166} ii puflhhed qmr- Around the Campfire by Dave Foreman red]; by the Cenozoic Society. lad. PUB 455. - - ‘ mmm w. um_ m mum him is ‘ at The Wildlands Project Update by David Johns a nm—profitodueaijoria].scieo1iiit. andcltariLEblo VIEWPCIIMS curt-oration 6 Private Property and the Common Weatth by Wendeii Ban'y L‘spcarnic Smitty-Bean: Tom Meri‘uTiJflhn Daria Letters .13 {‘r-‘I'j. Dare Foreman (Ni-1‘}, David .Tflhl'L't {CIR}, Stephanie Mitts ear. Reed Nose roan. ma Updates .... ..‘i E with {MIL be Smoky Mountain Big Trees; Gult Sturgeon; Ftoad FiIPort #3 Mamba-ship in the [:Iellrtruxil: Society is open to 1 prihiiorrodinolialaaasubacnpttoato titr'rbl'bhrrr't. Maturai warld HEWE“"1Q _ P I _ I B S Non-roembml‘tipawd instirrrticizul subscripiions Alleg any State Park Logging roposed, Spirit ear anotuary an:- alao available The rate for iodiridnal Biadivergiw Exagggigfigmimfiflfigf 22 Scenes on a Round River by Rick Bass from are 530. SribsbripLionst to Canada and EHSISI‘CIB Forest HE’STOratiUn Mark Gafiney Moth rm: 53ft lie: r'yefli. on: rat-as supsniplitms 29 Buffalo commons by Dougfas Cgfiman Ellflf'fl]._ 32 Befriending a Central Hardwood Forest. part 3 by Sidney Coiiina WSTh-Mbi’TI-R:standaridruaehaugusmlfihH-hrfla 38 The Black Eiii‘oh by Robert Laverei'i' “9” 4"‘5- “Emmi ‘-_'T “517? 43 Ute in the Margins by F Bryant Furiow iflflfflg‘gfihfifflgfi “£53331: 4a Global Warming and The Witdlands Project by Thomas a Ftoonay _ ism. sum-Lem ofmamficriptsamianwmk 43 Sustainable Siivioulture In Eastern Hardwood Forests by PauiJ. Kairsz should bi: aonttoli‘LoEtliluroi-An Direcloté'i'gti: . 52 Old—g rowt‘n Forests in the Catskills and Adirondacks by Misbaai Kudiah on; who use morputers should inaludea 3. " is - Mpmrmmfirmsmm fiwrw 54 Threatened Eastem Did Growth by Mary Byrd Dans ins. Quoriasinam'anoe ofaubroiasion arr. recom- Strategy welded- Wriim and was who will their work 5? Conservationists Conoeive Cow Cops by Andy Kerr mun-nu] must inelmia a stamped. golf-addressed - mum my firm mum m Imam? 59 Fending off SLAPPs by Mad Mudd and Hay Vaughan rm more: materials. 62 Using Conservation Easements by Brian Dunkiei “tie-Feb were filmed Moi-flaming“ F56 Fleinhabirting the Community of Life by Chris van Daaien is ompatiblo With the poiieifii and peak of the Thunderbear (knead: Razz-L'iist}. For ratssr'irrFonuau'on sealant Torn BuiJor a:$lJ2}4'_i-4—-1[F.'T. Tit The Decade Volcanoes by PJ Fiyan Comaigh'tfllE’E’b byflndmie Soeiat5'.1na.Ail rights er [1.355 Prupgsalg reserved. No part of this panor' iical may be re- - . _ . . . . me “mm Pemifiim Mlaflmrkiq m: T3 Tne Gila Ftwer Sky island Region by Tony Powirtrs property of an individual mist and 1:,- used by Land Ethics perms-paw. Unauthorised rtprodut'lien uf :III- T3 The Wild Pam by David {jg-fan “2m? ‘5 W” “‘1 {new Population Problems Pcnmsmon to plum-copy shares for personal use. or : _ _ the internal or personal 15s of Wit-II: Elie-I13. is l 34 Baby Questionnalre grained by tho ("seesaw Society. ins. prcn'idad Reviews ________________ __35 that. the baa: for: of $5 per oopy oi the artist is paid directly to Ibo Copyright, Clearance Cantu, A n n Du '1 cam E nts‘ ' ' ' ' 91 17 Congress sr. Salem. tum b19711 Formosa or— Pfl'flt r'1i' sum-tiers that have men armed 3 times . 12 Crossover Peak by Suzanne Freeman [1m try-(XI: n septum system of payment has: - - Wigwam m rm m 1mm MN rm 3? it Springs Witnout a Name by Tayior Graham national!Repoqfingfien'icoixlflifi-Eloo-‘HSSEH 58 A Pagan Canticle by Lena Cone Free Poem Wu‘a' f-‘arrh '5: available on microfilm fran lirrjt'er- Tc] Caribnuddism by Gar}; Law-{933 fliwlflr$;;gl'fl§:“h a“ Rd" ’1‘“ Species Spotlight....inside back cover Ania-e amt-caring in an: Earth are indexed in m. Starilowers. . .rii'usfratt'on by Bob Etir's WTRONNIEBTAL I'liRIUDICa‘kLS BIBLIU-i'i- Rh PH? 3 nd THE Pr. [JE'IRN PIT! VF. FRF. S 3 INDEX_ “#5:! Harri: E primed. m: mkd paper. Cover art: Osprey (Pandion baitiaietus} by Gerry Biron ' ' m" Fa. mes-vino Exam 1. Biodiversity “Buffalo Commons” by Dottng Cqfi‘man we fa Chuck Gums An Encouraging Word 11 the tale I9t8tts and early ‘90s. Rutgers University demographers Frank and Deborah Popper dearer] big ground in America. Prflelrtitttittg the emergence of a vast Great Plains empty quarter {Pint-tiring i‘t-fngazr'ae. Deemnber I‘Ei‘}, the echo]- ars i gutted the gray stuhhle of old-frontier drought- hurned it ol'l', revealing a green uncharted land. This they deemed anew fntntier ma“flulfalti (Tummmsh—snggest- tug initiale that the federal government “take the newly emptied Plains and leer down the 11mm. replunl the altortgrass and restock the animals. ineluding the Hot“ rain." f‘ts originally manner]. the eanential task was “to restore large pans of the Plane. to their ore-white otmdition. to make them again the mmnons the settlers found in the nineteenth eennny.“ But the federal government has not come forward to nettlalirr: this auda- eious vision, and subsequent minineots lay the authors rai so questions as to what they aetually meant when they eoined the Buffalo Commons metaphor. Deborah Popper reeentEy explained: “We are talking about a largely small-settle, eiltrept'eneurially inspired bison uprising that does imply mutt: Bull—alt} ranch- ing. more eonsen'ation projeets. more eeotoorism and more ereatiye thin}:ng than the Plains have seen in some time." THE HiPI’IiRS HAVE sueeeeded in prying open the reiuetant pehlie mind. exposing it to their fertile. il'uuenltit'ated. vision. As scholars, though, they haw; sidestepped ads-titan}; Ltfletl ta'itltltuldjugjudgment on the shapes their idea takes as it is logged and pushed toward reality. To say that the Flapper}: have promised a new rrrtnLier without actually defining it, or showing us exactly how to get there, is not to fault them. Rather. it is to highlight the diffienlty of finding the way ahead. Buffalo Commons is a lush. tantalising idea. Essentitely it is virgin territory in the “gCUgrthF of hope.“ Hut by releasing their seating vision into a regional eli- mate of tineenainty. even despair. the Palmer‘s may he plaeiug its fate in the wnmg hands. The: the dreams of capitalists drive the nation, not those nfacadflniea metros,- gling agneulnlralists. is no mystery. For the tummy-makers, ramblings of a Hul‘t‘aJo (lemons were quick] y perceived as the serene of opportunity hmtehing. Fan. 1995 * WILD Earn 29 Tunes have changed. of course. since earlier enterprise ovarian and destroyed the natural wonders of past I'rtmu'crs. But our national psyche and extractive economic system have not changed much over the past century or so; and triarltcts remain characteristimlly “blind” where the better interests of people and land are at stake. Because socioeconomic inertia will continue to impact Plains developments. caution is pm— dent. hire mnstnol assume that a hollow icon like Buffalo {litm- mons will somehow inspire the social msponsibility and environmental altruian of all those who would promote it. As the corporate wheels get rolling on the new frontier. it may be difllcult to avoid another market-driven feeding-frenzy, with bison as the entree. If there is danger in crnniptjng the wild image of a Buf- falo Commons. then there is danger to the Etnft'alotliemselves and their Great Plains ltfl'ttlsitttpc as well. As a“itcystone" spe— cies in the Great l’lains.Arnerican Bison evolved with and are organically linked to numerous other species of the prairies. The well—being ofabroad range ofinterdependent animal and plant spades rises or falls with the shifting forum of the bism. The unique hardiness and adaptability of bison enabled our own ancestors to endure the rigors of' ice ages, dispersing with the large bovines throughout northern Eurasia and North America. Bison, humans, and grasslands have been closely linkedinan epic of global survival for lflflfltltt years or more. Artful rendtn'ings of bison and other graters on eavc walls in Europe attest to this vital union. Only relatively recently have bison been pushed from our lives. 30 Wan BIRTH * FALL 1935 Unfortunately. recent developmean would suggest that we are drif ting toward an era of private bison ranching.not the holistic renewal envisioned in Bull'an {filmmons ideals. Com- ruet'cial bison rrutching is geared to short—tom ends: exploit- ative, single-species prislnction, rapid catniriu'tm of biomass, enhanced profits for those wlto would harness wild sprxics to humtnt thisitcs. The [trimssis industrial. not ccologiusl,eu1d is chmnicatly subject to the demands and tmcertainties of the marketplace. Fluthennote, in order for bison ranchers to meet their ohjocti vcs, herds must constantly bcmcdicaltsl. managed, and otherwise manipulated against their wild inclinations. .as tl'teirbehavioral and reproductive repertoires tn'c thwarted, bi son are put at rislt. theoretically. we may be able to grow a bunch of Buffalo on a ranch pasture...fora time...jnst as we might grow a bunch of firs or pines on a tree farm. Try as we might. though, we do not produce a genuine bison herd any more thrm we eroitc an old-growth forest. 't'rees. salmon. bison whatever— industrial monocultures of any species simply do not WDl'lt'. well in The long—term biological sense. 1|J'tlth bison. especially. the organic samplesin and vast scrdc ol'their native habitat cannot be ap- proximated within the confines ol'a commercial operation. It is profound ignoiance. then. a social alienation from organic entities such as bison. that causes us now to grasp at ranching as a Fautacea. while igmn'ing the long—term plight of prairie classics. 'Ihr: natural history of the lEircat l-‘lains hides like some elusive “dark matter“: thoughit renmins invisible to the eye. it is the very stall that holds the world together. ‘Mtcn we acknowledge biotin as a unifying strandin this liv- ing tapestry, a troubling fact emerges: wild bison are essentially extinct in this country today. The species has been. reducer! tort state of semi-captivity. The [ni- mal Alum-icon beam is now IRELth to our timhnolog'ic age, yet the public is l'lliflWl-lfl’: of the problinn. So far we have addressed only the “Buffalo” pan ofa dual apltorisnt; the “Commons” pan also is prob- lematic. The term sets land-ownc rs hip against common use on the Great Plains, calling current land—use practices into question. Ownershipdiy-lrutd fanning. private livestock ranching and other uses all become instantly ormtmvcrsial in the Buffalo ISont- mons purview. History tells us why. Today‘s uses of arid Western rangclands stern directly from the Homestead lira -. a defining period in the late-19th and early—2th!) countries. fit that tune, pawsagc of several Homestead Acts curated a frontier, pitting F'lains settlers against the open range with the promise of ownership. Bosnian the acts were unreal- istic in the first place—out of trtttch with harsh realia ties of climate and landscape—they set the stage for cycles ol'ntiscry and destruction. Subsequent attempts to fine—time domestic Plains uses under the private ownership system have fallen far short Continuing thsillnsiornnmtt and failure in the dry lands are signs illustration by Peter anclrelli Biodiversity that the ghost of the homesteader is with us still. To this day, his star-crossed pltut dogs the Plains dwellers, locki ng Them lit :1 futile struggle against Ll'tc cttvirotuncttt. Like the “lint-.Ftflo" paIt. thtaigh. the "Coalitions" prob- lem is not mssarily hisunnotmlahlc. land-ownership,txiin- petition. and rugged individualism are rampant in trniay‘s lt‘Ce-L‘ttlerprise system, but cooperative rangeiantl institutions also have been portof the l‘la’estem heritage firm on earl y date Even before hist completely vanished ll'ttIII the Plains. in the 'lS'it'ls and “hills, mmeradve gating of cattle on vast short- grass ranges was infth swing. In the days of the com Mtge. two or more ranches would run stock in die same area. coop- erating in semi-annual nnindtnts. th’ersightol'stock—sottingaofl tM-nership disputes was handled by representatives from each partitipsting ranch. Evenulally. stochgrowers’ cooperatives arose to manage the larger affairs of The dry—land endeavor. This common-sense plan allowed stock men to gram rnore mtirnals over larger areas than they could possibly have fenced and omtrollod alone. Exclusive ownership of lands was urinating sary, since use alone served to establish distress. and the heu- eftts scented to all.Thcrc is valuable precedent hcre. Whit was the open range but a vast otn'nntons. albeit one grinned by tile wrong hot-inc? Today, ways ol'adaplingII to native plants and wild anirlmls as an economic base will be somewhat different from those used on the opert—mugo, but the clear advantage of coopera— tion remains. in the harsh environment of die High Plains, co- opcralita't cams smssiss. Hail Iiison,ralltet' than cattle. been The animal of choice hack in those early days. an enduring way of life might well have emerged. Hts it was. exotic {imported} cattle were a wcetlr link in the open range system; Iheyoould not with— stand the rigors of the Plains without costly tnunan interven— tions. Dmughts, hard winters. grind, and plung'ng Insrltcts broke the back of the open range. In that: end, the [and itself was broken and fenood. Not even hmnesteading. though.de break the compel- ling story of the open range. It pulls at us today through futur— istic visions like Buffalo Elonuumts, evoking a wilder past. the Poppuis’ vision. of course. is not just a story; it is the bright wild-side of the Atticriotu Dream. And at this place in history, it should be obvious that perpetuating dysfunctional dryuland models with private bison ranching or totuisru is merely a preso‘iption for continued failure. To avoid this pit- lall, we must proceed on Illl: basis of adequate diagnoses of our historical ills. The causes lie largely within ourselves —in the failute to incmpomte gmgmphic reality as a guide to socio- emnomic development. letu'tately, brings correspond- ing opportunity. On the Great Plains. the need for mpreheusive. biologically—tasted platming affords people a unique chance to seine the future by reintegrating Il'teir lives Iwifl'lin :1 restored bionic. its with eon-systems. ottr own human prospects for last- ing success in agricul rurally marginal lands hinge uprm integ— rity. [It the vision before us now. “Button” and "Commons" tnust be ltcpt together—unified. Imderfilood, and implemented as interactive [nets of a practical unit. 'l'his is the large pill. as it were, which ntust be talseu whole if it is to have ll'le desired peniti ve effect. Splitting 1he metaphor (as some cm'rent dot-cl- opiueuts daemon} is splitting the world iLscll': bad ittodicine for :m ailing land. Restoring ll‘cc—nu‘tgiug histm and their asso- ciatcs to the common ranges that generated and sustained them must be the tortuutulut ohicctive ol'the Buifalullonmous pro grain. If urn, Httlfttlo {Tornrnons lmcontes simply one more euphemism l'or“bttsi|1ess as tonal.” Fortunately. there are already signs that the Buffalo (join- rnons is a healingII 1cistern. Bison and native animals and plants of the Plains retain much of their innate vigor to this day. Bi- son are proving dtemselves among the most resilient of North America‘s native graaers. Biologi only—speaking, chant-cs for their Iwild restu'tccdon remain good. Du the human side. much is now being done lmflll‘y in Il'te Plains by way of hison tsmsta'vatitm and habitat renewal. to restore and safegusnl the native biodiversity, though. the stranglehold of suict land-ownership Inust gradually be related. Far front signifying failure. easing our death—grip on the dry plains II-vill greatly cnbmtce the natural productivity of the land- scape, thus improviiigloug tange piospects for social and eco- nomic renewal. The Buffalo {ltmtrntms vision shows Its the ermlituling hope ol'tl'tc dry Great Plains. There is still acltanee in that rug- gial. rolling lusndtuul to find alife that works; but uooue should suggest this Iwill be easy. Buffalo Crimrnons presents real Ecnges to our national psyche. lt presupposes vision. sensitiv- ity. and awareness in our relations to the land and to other life form s. [I reprints coherence and erantn'chcnsi vta'tcss of thought and plmlnll'lg. ll wisdom and restraint in our social and oatmeal development. Above all. it implies norm-station among people. and reciprocity between htunans and the rest of the natural world. Bullan Commons ponends nothing less than a return to Nature. it. Buffalo {fonunous must be [bonded upon a holistic model,involt'inglarge—seale eeolog'iestl restoration. Nature must he the chief architect, of course, but will do the job right only if left alone to do most of tho carpentry as well. Humans might just stand and watch much of the time, though they too can he kept busy mitigating ravages of the past century. wltilc inventing new lifestyles for the next. In this way, the transition to a cooperative, wildlife-based economy will occur gradually as the pace of restoration and the growth of grasses and wildlife populations permits. ln- slitutions. lifestyles. and amenities will come in time—tai— lored to the rtwtikening landscape. Writer Doug {:flflnfln (id-r15 Hillary Drive. filigree. OR 931ml studies the history. sundry. and emintiouofths Anteri— can Bison. FALL tElEIE - WILD EARTH 31 ...
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Coffman - Buffalo Commons - $4.95 US I: 3E The Block Biron

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