Finlayson et al - Late Survival

Finlayson et al - Late Survival - Vol 443 | 19 October 2006...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
LETTERS Late survival of Neanderthals at the southernmost extreme of Europe Clive Finlayson 1,2 , Francisco Giles Pacheco 3 , Joaquı´n Rodrı´guez-Vidal 4 , Darren A. Fa 1 , Jose ´ Marı´a Gutierrez Lo ´pez 5 , AntonioSantiagoPe ´rez 3 , GeraldineFinlayson 1 ,EthelAllue 6 ,JavierBaenaPreysler 7 ,IsabelCa ´ceres 6 ,Jose ´ S.Carrio ´n 8 , Yolanda Ferna ´ndez Jalvo 9 , Christopher P. Gleed-Owen 10 , Francisco J. Jimenez Espejo 11 , Pilar Lo ´pez 12 , Jose ´ Antonio Lo ´pez Sa ´ez 13 , Jose ´ Antonio Riquelme Cantal 14 , Antonio Sa ´nchez Marco 9 , Francisco Giles Guzman 15 , Kimberly Brown 16 , Noemı´Fuentes 8 , Claire A. Valarino 1 , Antonio Villalpando 15 , Christopher B. Stringer 17 , Francisca Martinez Ruiz 11 18 The late survival of archaic hominin populations and their long contemporaneity with modern humans is now clear for southeast Asia 1 . In Europe the extinction of the Neanderthals, firmly asso- ciated with Mousterian technology, has received much attention, and evidence of their survival after 35 kyr BP has recently been put in doubt 2 . Here we present data, based on a high-resolution record of human occupation from Gorham’s Cave, Gibraltar, that estab- lish the survival of a population of Neanderthals to 28 kyr BP . These Neanderthals survived in the southernmost point of Europe, within a particular physiographic context, and are the last cur- rently recorded anywhere. Our results show that the Neander- thals survived in isolated refuges well after the arrival of modern humans in Europe. The association between Neanderthals and Gibraltar dates to 1848 when a Neanderthal cranium was discovered at Forbes’s Quarry 3 . The excavation of the Devil’s Tower rock shelter in 1925–26 by Dorothy Garrod produced a second Neanderthal cranium with asso- ciated Mousterian industry 4 . It has since been established beyond doubt that the Neanderthals were the makers of the Mousterian in western Europe 5 . In Gibraltar there are currently eight Neanderthal occupation sites on the 6-km-long 426-m-high rock. The presence of Mousterian technology in Gorham’s Cave, Gibraltar, was estab- lished during excavations made between 1948 and 1954 (ref. 6). The site was revisited from 1995 with a view to establishing the timing of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition. A date of 32.28 6 0.42 kyr BP (OxA-7857) was obtained for the uppermost Mousterian levels 7 . Before 1997 all excavations and soundings had been made in the external part of the cave. Problems of contamina- tion of radiocarbon samples from wet, unprotected, exterior, parts of caves have recently been brought to light 2 . Here we describe the results of a series of excavations deep within Gorham’s Cave between 1999 and 2005. Excavations have been made of 29 m
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 09/25/2011 for the course ANTHROPOLO 111 taught by Professor Scott during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

Page1 / 4

Finlayson et al - Late Survival - Vol 443 | 19 October 2006...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online