9-15-11Development - synthesis GABA synthesis...

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Development of the Brain
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Some questions How do neurons develop? How do they make connections (synapses)? How does experience affect development?
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Birth 350 g 1 year 1000 g Adult 1200- 1400 g
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ectoderm mesoderm endoderm Three layers
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~ 18 days Neural plate
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~ 20 days Neural groove Neural crest -- PNS
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~ 22 days Neural tube
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~ 24 days
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Formation of the neural tube What does the neural tube become?
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Six stages of neural development
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1. Neurogenesi s (proliferation) Ventricular zone “stem cells”
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1. Neurogenesis 250,000 per minute!!
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2.Migration
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Migration methods Glia-Mediated Migration
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Neural tube
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Radi al glial cell
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Unformatted text preview: synthesis GABA synthesis Differentiated cells dopamine synthesis GABA synthesis Dopamine neuron dopamine synthesis GABA synthesis GABA neuron I nduction Notochord Motor neurons Differentiation -- Summary Timeline 9 18 27 36 Birth Conception Fetus Age in weeks Neurogenesis Migration Differentiation 4. Synaptogenesis How do neurons know how to “hook up?” Sperry’s experiments Normal frog Eye rotated 180° Growth cone Growth cone Chemoattractants Chemorepellents 5. Neuronal cell death Apoptosis Nerve growth factor (NGF) 6. Myelination Which areas myelinate last? Synapse rearrangement 5 weeks 3 months 1 year adult...
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