psych301 study ch-4

psych301 study ch-4 - Chapter 4 Approaches to Psychological...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 4 Approaches to Psychological Measurement Key Terms Naturalistic observation Participant observation Contrived observation Disguised observation Nondisguised observation Knowledgeable informants Unobtrusive measures Narrative Checklist Temporal measure Latency Duration Physiological measures Self-report Questionnaires Unipolar scales Bipolar scales Experience sampling methods Biases Social desirability Acquiescence Nay saying Archival data
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Naturalistic vs. Contrived Observation Naturalistic observation In this kind of observation the researcher observes participants, but as much as possible, does not influence or intrude upon the participant’s environment in any way. Nothing that the researcher intentionally does or causes to happen should influence the participant’s behavior. You can think of the researcher as being like a videotaping machine who just watches and records what happens as people go about their lives. (However, just like people might or might not notice a videotape machine playing somewhere, they may or may not be aware of a researcher observing them). Participant observation Participant observation is a kind of naturalistic observation. Only rather than the researcher being a somewhat detached observer of behavior, the researcher actually participates in the naturalistic environment with the research participants. For example, imagine a researcher was interested in some kind of cult in which the people tended to seclude themselves and excluded people outside of the cult. The researcher might pretend to be “a new recruit” of the cult in order to gain admission and observe what occurs. Participant observation can be problematic, because participating in the situation can have two effects: (1). Researchers might unintentionally influence the behavior of the real participants, and (2). It might influence the researcher’s objectivity. Contrived observation For contrived observation the researcher sets up an environment in which they then observe the participant. This might include using or creating an artificial setting such as a psychological laboratory, or maybe the laboratory is made to look like a living room, or a daycare center, or a tavern… whatever kind of setting the researcher thinks would be most helpful to producing the behavior she/he wants to study. Another possibility is the setting is very natural but the situation is contrived. For example, researchers have conducted studies at real summer camps, but they created situations like competitive games and cooperative tasks to study how two groups of campers interacted. So the difference between naturalistic and contrived observation is that for naturalistic
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 09/25/2011 for the course PSYCH 301 taught by Professor Bonett during the Spring '08 term at Iowa State.

Page1 / 5

psych301 study ch-4 - Chapter 4 Approaches to Psychological...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online