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psych301 study ch-14

psych301 study ch-14 - Chapter 14 Ethical Issues in...

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Chapter 14 Ethical Issues in Behavioral Research Key terms Deontological/Universal approach Ethical skepticism/Individual approach Utilitarian/Cost-benefit approach Institutional Review Board Risks Incentives Informed consent Deception Active deception Passive deception Debriefing Coercion Confidentiality Scientific Misconduct Data fabrication Falsification of Results Plagiarism Milgram Obedience Study Stanford Prison Study Tuskegee Syphilis Study
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Approaches to ethical decisions Deontological/ Universal – this approach is associated with the belief that there is a single, universal code for deciding what is right and wrong. The difficulty with using this approach for guiding research decisions is that the process for developing the ethical guidelines needs to be acceptable to everyone…even if they don’t agree with the ultimate decision. So the question arises as to who, or which group of people, will decide on the particular universal code that will be used? Ethical skepticism – from this perspective, ethical decisions are left up to the individual because it is believed that all ethical guidelines are relative, and depend upon culture and historical context. Utilitarian ( cost/benefit) – the utilitarian approach considers the consequences of an action, and what harm (cost) or good (benefit) might emerge as a result. If a research study will do little harm, then it does not have to do a lot of good to be considered acceptable. However, if the research study could do a lot of harm, like requiring lots of animal suffering or having people take part in risky treatments, then it will not be acceptable unless there is the potential that the research will produce a lot of benefit (like the cure for a disease, such as polio). Research ethics in the United States are approached from a utilitarian perspective, in which the potential benefits are weighed against the costs in deciding whether or not the research should be allowed. The Institutional Review Board Every institution that receives federal funds (which includes just about every college and university) MUST have an institutional review board (IRB) to oversee and approve research activities. The members of the IRB must be diverse, in that they are not all scientists, they come from a variety of departments, and must include representation of individuals who are not associated with the university. Researchers submit research proposals to the IRB who then determine whether or not the research should be allowed to go forward. It is quite common for the IRB to request modifications to research programs so that they can minimize participants’ costs and further protect participant’s rights. Informed consent The purpose of informed consent is to provide the potential participant with information about a research study so that they can make an informed decision about whether or not they would like to participate.
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