ch11gch - Chapter 11: Chapter Health Effects of Health...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 11: Chapter Health Effects of Health Environmental Change Environmental Local Environmental Change Local Damming, mining, paving, dumping, farming, Damming, building, etc. building, Changes may (1) be minimally damaging to the Changes environment or (2) may cause permanent damage. damage. – What are some examples in each category? Changes may (1) improve human health, (2) Changes exacerbate health hazards, or (3) solve one problem but create another. problem – What are some examples in each category? Environmental Risk Factors Environmental Disease(s) % of cases of attributable to the environment the Primary environmental risk Primary factor factor Intestinal worms, Intestinal trachoma, schisto. trachoma, 100 Water, sanitation, hygiene Japanese encephalitis 95 Water resources Water management management Dengue 95 Housing risks Diarrhea 94 Water, sanit., hygiene Drowning 72 Recreational environ. Lower respiratory Lower infections infections 42 Indoor air pollution Malaria 40 Water resources mgmt. What environmental steps could be taken to reduce the prevalence of these infections? Collapse Collapse Book by Jared Diamond Societies may die out because they refuse to Societies change cultural habits of environmental interaction interaction 8 key processes for environmental damage: key 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Deforestation and habitat destruction Soil problems – erosion, salinization Water management problems Overhunting Overfishing Effects of introduced species on native species Human population growth Increased per capita impact of people Local Environmental Changes Local Dams / Irrigation – ↑ snail habitat ↑ schisto – ↑ insect breeding sites ↑ malaria, oncho, JE, WNV, SLE SLE – ↑ moist soil ↑ helminth infections Deforestation – ↑ contact with insect vectors and animal reservoirs ↑ malaria, leish, yellow fever, oncho, zoonotic infections malaria, Reforestation – ↑ contact with ticks ↑ Lyme disease Agricultural intensification – ↑ contact with rodents ↑ typhus – ↑ pesticide use poisoning Local Environmental Changes Local Urbanization – ↓ water / sanitation ↑ cholera, crypto, other diarrheal diseases and helminths diarrheal – ↑ trash ↑ rodents and mosquitoes ↑ dengue, plague dengue, – ↑ crowding ↑ TB and respiratory infections, violence, mental illness violence, – ↑ in-migration ↑ communicable diseases Urbanization Urbanization Urban residents generally healthier than rural Urban residents – but this is not true for recent migrants migrants – – – – – – – Minimal access to water / sanitation / trash disposal Poorly constructed shelters Expensive foods Limited places to exercise Noise pollution / outdoor air pollution Hazardous locations Risky jobs Urbanization %, 2003 Urbanization Missing 0 – 24.9 25 – 49.9 50 – 74.9 ≥ 75 Largest metropolitan areas: (1) Tokyo, (2) Mexico City, (3) NYC, (4) São Paulo, (5) Mumbai, (6) Delhi, (7) Shanghai, (8) Kolkata, (9) Jakarta, (10) Buenos Aires Environmental Hazards Environmental Environmental Low-income areas Environmental Factor Factor High-income areas Water / Water sanitation sanitation Microbial contamination Chemical contamination Food Microbial contamination Additives / preservatives Indoor air From burning biomass From building materials / From paints / solvents paints Workplace Agriculture / trade work Agriculture risks risks Industrial work risks Home Infectious disease due Infectious to crowding and poor hygiene hygiene Asthma and allergies due to Asthma immune system not being exposed to pathogens and dirt dirt Occupational Health Occupational Special occupational risks identified by 1700 – Sailors (“limeys”) scurvy Sailors – Chimney sweeps scrotal cancer Chimney Every worker faces a unique set of biological, Every chemical, physical, mechanical, and psychosocial risks at work psychosocial – Heavy machinery crush wounds and hearing loss Heavy Medical workers infectious diseases Medical – Office workers repetition injuries Office Occupational Health Occupational ILO (International Labor Organization) More than 2 million people die each year from More occupational injuries occupational Nearly 270 million miss at least 3 days of work 37% of back pain, 16% of hearing loss, 11% of 37% asthma, 10% of injuries, 2% of leukemias due to workplace hazards workplace Many could be prevented with better Many enforcement of safety regulations enforcement Toxicology Toxicology Toxicology: study of harmful effects of chemicals and other environmental hazards (like radiation) radiation) – – – Frequency (how often?) Duration (for how long?) Dose (how much?) Carcinogens cause cancer Teratogens cause birth defects Examples of toxic substances: arsenic, lead, Examples mercury, vinyl chloride, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), benzene, PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), cadmium, asbestos, pesticides hydrocarbons), Examples of Industrial / Community Environmental Health Issues Environmental Nuclear melt-down at Chernobyl, Ukraine Nuclear (1986) (1986) Chemical plant accident released methyl Chemical isocyanate in Bhopal, India (1984) isocyanate Air pollution Air – Kyoto Protocol (part of the Framework Kyoto Convention on Climate Change) Convention Community Health Action Community Arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh – Solutions: painted water pump handles, lowcost filters, digging deeper DDT, mosquito control, and malaria Global Climate Change Global IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate IPCC Change) scientists have reached consensus that global warming is occurring global Results: – Temperature extremes (more hot days and nights; fewer Temperature cold days and nights) cold – Increase in heavy precipitation in some areas and Increase droughts in others droughts – Increase in hurricane (tropical cyclone) activity – Increase in incidence of high sea levels – Perhaps increased ozone depletion and UV radiation – Other problems: acid rain, loss of biodiversity, Other deforestation, desertification, resource depletion (especially water) (especially Examples of the signs of Examples global environmental change global Global Climate Change Land Degradation Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Loss of Freshwater Resources Precipitation Variability Loss of Biodiversity New Wind Patterns Extreme Weather Events Temperature Extremes Global Environmental Changes Global Temperature extremes – ↑ heat waves ↑ heat stroke / death – ↑ range of insect vectors ↑ malaria and other vector-borne infections other – ↑ destruction of crops ↑ malnutrition Decreased precipitation – ↑ drought malnutrition – ↑ air pollution (pollen, smoke, etc.) ↑ asthma, allergies, respiratory illnesses asthma, Global Environmental Changes Global Elevated precipitation – ↑ floods / rising sea level ↑ drowning, cholera, other diarrheal diseases cholera, – ↑ mosquito breeding grounds ↑ dengue, Rift Valley fever Rift – ↑ rodent population ↑ hantavirus, plague – ↑ destruction of crops ↑ malnutrition Ozone depletion – ↑ UV radiation ↑ skin cancer, cataracts What to do? What Take steps to limit your own contribution to Take global warming. global – Make intentional choices about where to live, work, Make travel, what to purchase, etc. travel, – Find alternative energy sources where possible. – Use appropriate building materials and build in safe Use areas. areas. Promote sustainable agriculture, industry, waste Promote sustainable management, etc. management, – We have the market power ($) to influence the way We business is done in other parts of the world. business ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/23/2011 for the course GCH 100 taught by Professor Corso during the Fall '11 term at George Mason.

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