gchch10 - Chapter 10 Chapter Environmental Health History...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10: Chapter Environmental Health History of Environmental Health History Hippocrates (460-388 BCE): any investigation of Hippocrates health must start with evaluation of the environment, diet, and behavior environment, People have long known to dispose of waste, People protect water, and bury carcasses protect 1820s/1830s: “miasma atmospheres” (foul 1820s/1830s: gases) cause disease focus on hygiene 1900s: focus on genes and infectious agents 1900s: rather than the social and natural environments rather 2000s: health = genes / infection / immunology + 2000s: environmental exposures environmental Environmental Health Environmental Air quality Food safety Radiation safety Solid waste management Hazardous materials Water quality Noise control Housing quality Vector control What are examples of human health problems What reltaed to each of these areas? reltaed Health and the Environment Health 35% of cancer deaths due to just nine lifestyle and 35% environmental factors environmental 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Obesity Low fruit / vegetable intake Physical inactivity Smoking Alcohol use Unsafe sex Urban air pollution Indoor smoke from use of solid fuels Contaminated injections How are these risk factors related to the environment? How are these risk factors related to human health? Environment and Human Health Environment Example: What health hazards might be Example: present in the following environments? present Climate (desert, tropics, artic, etc.) – Temperature, vegetation, altitude, weather, Temperature, etc. etc. Workplace (office, manufacturing plant, Workplace farm, etc.) farm, Home Water Needs Water Drinking Cooking Hygiene (hand-washing and bathing) Cleaning (clothes, pots, homes) Water Access Goals Water 1. 2. Quality Quantity – – 3. Proximity – 4. Women and children may spend several hours each Women day fetching water day Reliability – 5. About 50 liters / person / day needed Minimum 15-20 liters: 1-3 for drinking, 2-3 for Minimum cooking, 6-7 for hygiene, 4-6 for laundry cooking, System can be maintained; appropriate technology System appropriate Cost Water Access Water About 20% of people have no access to About water services water – May have <5 liters/person/day – Nearest water source >1km away – Quality not assured – Very high likelihood of health problems Limited access in Africa, Middle East, and Limited parts of Asia and Latin America parts Water coverage (% of total population), 2004 Water Missing data 0 – 49.9% 50 – 74.9% 75 – 89.9% 90 – 99% > 99% Sustainable access to an improved water source, 2004 improved 100 75 Rural 50 Urban Tot al 25 0 Oceania Eastern Asia Southern Asia an improved water source, 2004 Sub-Saharan AfricaSouth-Eastern Asia Western Asia Northern Africa Proportion of population with sustainable access to Latin America and the Caribbean Other Water Issues: Scarcity Other Only 2.5% of the world’s water is freshwater, Only and 2/3 of that is in glaciers and Main sources of freshwater: rain, surface water Main (risk of pollution), ground water (wells) (risk 70% of water used in agriculture Water scarcity (<200 cubic meters of freshwater Water resources per person) resources – Middle Eastern / North African nations like Kuwait, Middle Egypt, and UAE Egypt, – Small island nations like the Bahamas and Singapore Internal freshwater resources per person by world region, 2004 per 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 Middle South Asi a East Asia Freshwater resources per capita (cubic& Paci fi c meters) E a st & North Africa SubSaharan Africa Europe & Latin Central Ameri ca & Asi a Caribbean Other Water Issues: Privatization Other Who owns water? What happens when water rights are What sold? sold? Example: Cochabamba, Bolivia Is water a commodity or a human right? Sanitation Sanitation Disposal of human excreta Examples of improved sanitation facilities: – – – – Improved pit latrine (outhouse) Composting toilets Septic systems Sewage systems Unimproved: street, field, bucket, bag, flushing Unimproved: to street or ditch to About 50% of people in developing countries do About not have access to even a basic sanitation system lack of privacy, safety Sanitation coverage (% of total population), 2004 Sanitation Missing data 0 – 49.9% 50 – 74.9% 75 – 89.9% 90 – 99% > 99% Access to improved sanitation, 2004 Access 100 75 Rural 50 Urban Total 25 improved sanitation, 2004 0 Proportion of ub- Southewith access toc eania SouthS population rn Eas tern O Latin Nort hern W es tern Saharan As ia A s ia Eas tern Americ a Afric a A s ia Afric a As ia & Carib. Sanitation and Health Sanitation “6 Fs” – – – – – – Feces Fields Fluid Fingers Food Flies Risk: diarrhea and worm infections Solution: improve water access, excreta Solution: disposal, and hygiene practices disposal, Energy Use Energy Uses: cooking, heat, light What are possible sources of energy? Concerns – Lost time (great distances) of women and Lost children children – Environmental degradation Fuel and Indoor Air Pollution Fuel Is electricity necessary? Is What are the health benefits of electricity? What More than 25% of people do not have electricity More in their homes and must burn solid fuels (wood, coal, dung, etc.) smoke released into home high levels of indoor air pollution increased risk of respiratory diseases (and burns), especially for women and children burns), Access to electricity by world region, 2002 Access 100 75 Rural 50 Urban Tot al 25 0 Proportion of population with electricity, 2002 Nort h Afric a Middle Eas t Lat in Eas t As ia Americ a and China Sout h A s ia SubSaharan Afric a Reducing Indoor Air Pollution Reducing Use improved cooking devices that divert Use smoke out of the home smoke Use alternate energy sources like solar Use panels panels Increase ventilation or move kitchen Increase outside of home or shelter outside Keep children away from smoke and Keep boiling liquids boiling ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/23/2011 for the course GCH 100 taught by Professor Corso during the Fall '11 term at George Mason.

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