Chapter12ISM - CHAPTER 12 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS...

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CHAPTER 12 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS Problem Categories Biological : 12.56, 12.57, 12.66, 12.76, 12.81, 12.93, 12.132. Conceptual : 12.9, 12.10, 12.11, 12.12, 12.35, 12.36, 12.69, 12.70, 12.71, 12.72, 12.75, 12.83, 12.87, 12.88, 12.89, 12.91, 12.96, 12.97, 12.100, 12.101, 12.103, 12.106, 12.111, 12.112, 12.115, 12.118, 12.119, 12.120. Descriptive : 12.98, 12.113. Industrial : 12.113. Organic : 12.9, 12.10, 12.12, 12.16, 12.17, 12.19, 12.21, 12.24, 12.49, 12.50, 12.51, 12.52, 12.53, 12.54, 12.55, 12.58, 12.59, 12.60, 12.61, 12:2, 12.63, 12.64, 12.65, 12.70, 12.88, 12.94, 12.96, 12.104, 12.105, 12.110, 12.111, 12.114, 12.116, 12.123. Difficulty Level Easy : 12.9, 12.10, 12.12, 12.15, 12.17, 12.20, 12.23, 12.27, 12.37, 12.55, 12.56, 12.63, 12.69, 12.72, 12.75, 12.77, 12.78, 12.82, 12.83, 12.85, 12.96, 12.98, 12.101, 12.112. Medium : 12.11, 12.16, 12.18, 12.19, 12.21, 12.22, 12.24, 12.28, 12.35, 12.36, 12.49, 12.50, 12.51, 12.52, 12.57, 12.58, 12.60, 12.61, 12.62, 12.64, 12.65, 12.66, 12.70, 12.71, 12.73, 12.74, 12.76, 12.84, 12.86, 12.87, 12.88, 12.90, 12.91, 12.93, 12.95, 12.97, 12.100, 12.102, 12.103, 12.106, 12.108, 12.109, 12.110, 12.111, 12.115, 12.116, 12.117, 12.118, 12.123, 12.130, 12.132. Difficult : 12.29, 12.38, 12.53, 12.54, 12.59, 12.81, 12.89, 12.92, 12.94, 12.99, 12.104, 12.105, 12.107, 12.113, 12.114, 12.119, 12.120, 12.121, 12.122, 12.124, 12.125, 12.126, 12.127, 12.128, 12.129, 12.131. 12.9 CsF is an ionic solid; the ion ion attractions are too strong to be overcome in the dissolving process in benzene. The ion induced dipole interaction is too weak to stabilize the ion. Nonpolar naphthalene molecules form a molecular solid in which the only interparticle forces are of the weak dispersion type. The same forces operate in liquid benzene causing naphthalene to dissolve with relative ease. Like dissolves like. 12.10 Strategy: In predicting solubility, remember the saying: Like dissolves like. A nonpolar solute will dissolve in a nonpolar solvent; ionic compounds will generally dissolve in polar solvents due to favorable ion-dipole interactions; solutes that can form hydrogen bonds with a solvent will have high solubility in the solvent. Solution: Strong hydrogen bonding (dipole-dipole attraction) is the principal intermolecular attraction in liquid ethanol, but in liquid cyclohexane the intermolecular forces are dispersion forces because cyclohexane is nonpolar. Cyclohexane cannot form hydrogen bonds with ethanol, and therefore cannot attract ethanol molecules strongly enough to form a solution. 12.11 The order of increasing solubility is: O 2 < Br 2 < LiCl < CH 3 OH . Methanol is miscible with water because of strong hydrogen bonding. LiCl is an ionic solid and is very soluble because of the high polarity of the water molecules. Both oxygen and bromine are nonpolar and exert only weak dispersion forces. Bromine is a larger molecule and is therefore more polarizable and susceptible to dipole induced dipole attractions. 12.12 The longer the C C chain, the more the molecule "looks like" a hydrocarbon and the less important the OH group becomes. Hence, as the C C chain length increases, the molecule becomes less polar. Since “like dissolves like”, as the molecules become more nonpolar, the solubility in polar water decreases. The OH group of the alcohols can form strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules, but this property decreases as the chain length increases.
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CHAPTER 12: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS 314 12.15 Percent mass equals the mass of solute divided by the mass of the solution (that is, solute plus solvent) times 100 (to convert to percentage). (a) 5.50 g NaBr 100% 78.2 g soln ×= 7.03% (b) 31.0 g KCl 100% (31.0 152)g soln + 16.9% (c) 4.5 g toluene 100% (4.5 29)g soln + 13% 12.16 Strategy: We are given the percent by mass of the solute and the mass of the solute. We can use Equation (12.1) of the text to solve for the mass of the solvent (water).
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This note was uploaded on 09/24/2011 for the course CHEM 369 taught by Professor Wang during the Spring '11 term at University of Houston.

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Chapter12ISM - CHAPTER 12 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS...

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