Chapter13ISM - CHAPTER 13 CHEMICAL KINETICS Problem...

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CHAPTER 13 CHEMICAL KINETICS Problem Categories Biological : 13.61, 13.62, 13.109, 13.116, 13.121, 13.127. Conceptual : 13.29, 13.30, 13.43, 13.63, 13.64, 13.71, 13.72, 13.77, 13.81, 13.82, 13.85, 13.86, 13.98, 13.99, 13.101, 13.104, 13.108, 13.125. Descriptive : 13.73, 13.91, 13.92, 13.113, 13.117. Environmental : 13.95, 13.96. Industrial : 13.68, 13.84, 13.105, 13.113, 13.119. Difficulty Level Easy : 13.13, 13.17, 13.18, 13.25, 13.27, 13.28, 13.39, 13.40, 13.41, 13.51, 13.61, 13.66, 13.67, 13.74, 13.78, 13.85, 13.90, 13.93, 13.94, 13.107, 13.111, 13.118. Medium : 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.19, 13.26, 13.29, 13.30, 13.37, 13.38, 13.42, 13.43, 13.52, 13.54, 13.62, 13.63, 13.64, 13.65, 13.68, 13.69, 13.72, 13.73, 13.75, 13.79, 13.81, 13.82, 13.84, 13.86, 13.87, 13.88, 13.89, 13.96, 13.97, 13.98, 13.99, 13.100, 13.101, 13.102, 13.103, 13.104, 13.108, 13.110, 13.112, 13.117, 13.122, 13.124, 13.125, 13.127, 13.128. Difficult : 13.20, 13.53, 13.70, 13.71, 13.76, 13.77, 13.80, 13.83, 13.91, 13.92, 13.95, 13.105, 13.106, 13.109, 13.113, 13.114, 13.115, 13.116, 13.119, 13.120, 13.121, 13.123, 13.126. 13.5 In general for a reaction a A + b B c C + d D 1[ A ] B ] 1[ C D ] rate ΔΔ Δ Δ =− = = Δ Δ tt t t ab c d (a) 22 [H ] [I ] H I ] rate 2 Δ = ΔΔΔ ttt (b) 3 2 [BrO ] [Br ] B r] H] 1 rate 56 3 −+ Δ Δ = Δ Δ t t Note that because the reaction is carried out in the aqueous phase, we do not monitor the concentration of water. 13.6 (a) 22 2 [H ] [O ] [H O] 11 rate = Δ t (b) 3 [NH ] [O ] [H O] 1 [ N O ] 1 rate 45 4 6 Δ Δ = = Δ Δ t t 13.7 N O ] Rate 2 Δ Δ t [NO] 0.066 /s Δ Δ M t 2 [NO ] N O ] 1 Δ Δ −= (a) 2 Δ = Δ 0.066 /s t M
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CHAPTER 13: CHEMICAL KINETICS 351 (b) 2 [O ] 1[ N O ] 2 Δ Δ −= ΔΔ tt 2 [O ] 0.066 /s 2 Δ == Δ 0.033 /s M t M 13.8 Strategy: The rate is defined as the change in concentration of a reactant or product with time. Each “change in concentration” term is divided by the corresponding stoichiometric coefficient. Terms involving reactants are preceded by a minus sign. 3 22 [NH ] [N ] [H ] 11 rate = = 32 Δ =− Δ t Solution: (a) If hydrogen is reacting at the rate of 0.074 M /s, the rate at which ammonia is being formed is 3 2 [H ] = 23 Δ Δ or 3 2 [H ] 2 = 3 Δ Δ 3 2 ( 0.074 /s) 3 Δ =− − = Δ 0.049 /s M t M (b) The rate at which nitrogen is reacting must be: ( 0 . 0 7 4 / s ) 33 0.025 /s M M Will the rate at which ammonia forms always be twice the rate of reaction of nitrogen, or is this true only at the instant described in this problem? 13.13 rate = k [NH 4 + ][NO 2 ] = (3.0 × 10 4 / M s)(0.26 M )(0.080 M ) = 6.2 × 10 6 M /s 13.14 Assume the rate law has the form: rate = k [F 2 ] x [ClO 2 ] y To determine the order of the reaction with respect to F 2 , find two experiments in which the [ClO 2 ] is held constant. Compare the data from experiments 1 and 3. When the concentration of F 2 is doubled, the reaction rate doubles. Thus, the reaction is first-order in F 2 . To determine the order with respect to ClO 2 , compare experiments 1 and 2. When the ClO 2 concentration is quadrupled, the reaction rate quadruples. Thus, the reaction is first-order in ClO 2 . The rate law is: rate = k [F 2 ][ClO 2 ] The value of k can be found using the data from any of the experiments. If we take the numbers from the second experiment we have: 3 rate 4.8 10 /s =1 . 2 s [F ][ClO ] (0.10 )(0.040 ) × M kM MM
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CHAPTER 13: CHEMICAL KINETICS 352 Verify that the same value of k can be obtained from the other sets of data. Since we now know the rate law and the value of the rate constant, we can calculate the rate at any concentration of reactants. rate = k [F 2 ][ClO 2 ] = (1.2 M 1 s 1 )(0.010 M )(0.020 M ) = 2.4 × 10 4 M /s 13.15 By comparing the first and second sets of data, we see that changing [B] does not affect the rate of the reaction. Therefore, the reaction is zero order in B. By comparing the first and third sets of data, we see that doubling [A] doubles the rate of the reaction. This shows that the reaction is first order in A.
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This note was uploaded on 09/24/2011 for the course CHEM 369 taught by Professor Wang during the Spring '11 term at University of Houston.

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Chapter13ISM - CHAPTER 13 CHEMICAL KINETICS Problem...

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