Chapter15ISM - CHAPTER 15 ACIDS AND BASES Problem...

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CHAPTER 15 ACIDS AND BASES Problem Categories Biological : 15.96, 15.107, 15.135, 15.143, 15.147. Conceptual : 15.32, 15.35, 15.36, 15.70, 15.75, 15.76, 15.77, 15.78, 15.81, 15.82, 15.95, 15.98, 15.100, 15.113, 15.127, 15.128, 15.139. Descriptive : 15.37, 15.38, 15.67, 15.68, 15.69, 15.85, 15.86, 15.87, 15.88, 15.92, 15.93, 15.102, 15.105, 15.108, 15.109, 15.114, 15.115, 15.122, 15.129, 15.133, 15.136, 15.138, 15.147, 15.150. Environmental : 15.134 Difficulty Level Easy : 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.26, 15.31, 15.33, 15.34, 15.37, 15.67, 15.68, 15.69, 15.78, 15.92, 15.94, 15.98, 15.99, 15.100, 15.102, 15.105, 15.109, 15.112, 15.129, 15.133. Medium : 15.25, 15.32, 15.35, 15.36, 15.38, 15.43, 15.44, 15.45, 15.46, 15.47, 15.48, 15.49, 15.50, 15.53, 15.54, 15.55, 15.56, 15.63, 15.64, 15.70, 15.75, 15.76, 15.77, 15.79, 15.80, 15.81, 15.82, 15.85, 15.86, 15.87, 15.88, 15.91, 15.93, 15.95, 15.96, 15.97, 15.101, 15.106, 15.107, 15.108, 15.110, 15.111, 15.113, 15.114, 15.117, 15.120, 15.122, 15.125, 15.127, 15.128, 15.130, 15.136, 15.138, 15.139, 15.141, 15.142, 15.144, 15.146, 15.147, 15.149. Difficult : 15.61, 15.62, 15.103, 15.104, 15.115, 15.116, 15.118, 15.119, 15.121, 15.123, 15.124, 15.126, 15.131, 15.132, 15.134, 15.135, 15.137, 15.140, 15.143, 15.144, 15.145, 15.148, 15.150. 15.3 Table 15.2 of the text contains a list of important Brønsted acids and bases. (a) both (why?), (b) base, (c) acid, (d) base, (e) acid, (f) base, (g) base, (h) base, (i) acid, (j) acid. 15.4 Recall that the conjugate base of a Brønsted acid is the species that remains when one proton has been removed from the acid. (a) nitrite ion: NO 2 (b) hydrogen sulfate ion (also called bisulfate ion): HSO 4 (c) hydrogen sulfide ion (also called bisulfide ion): HS (d) cyanide ion: CN (e) formate ion: HCOO 15.5 In general the components of the conjugate acid base pair are on opposite sides of the reaction arrow. The base always has one fewer proton than the acid. (a) The conjugate acid base pairs are (1) HCN (acid) and CN (base) and (2) CH 3 COO (base) and CH 3 COOH (acid). (b) (1) HCO 3 (acid) and CO 3 2 (base) and (2) HCO 3 (base) and H 2 CO 3 (acid). (c) (1) H 2 PO 4 (acid) and HPO 4 2 (base) and (2) NH 3 (base) and NH 4 + (acid). (d) (1) HClO (acid) and ClO (base) and (2) CH 3 NH 2 (base) and CH 3 NH 3 + (acid). (e) (1) H 2 O (acid) and OH (base) and (2) CO 3 2 (base) and HCO 3 (acid). 15.6 The conjugate acid of any base is just the base with a proton added. (a) H 2 S (b) H 2 CO 3 (c) HCO 3 (d) H 3 PO 4 (e) H 2 PO 4 (f) HPO 4 2 (g) H 2 SO 4 (h) HSO 4 (i) HSO 3
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CHAPTER 15: ACIDS AND BASES 428 15.7 (a) The Lewis structures are CC O O O O H O O O O and (b) H + and H 2 C 2 O 4 can act only as acids, HC 2 O 4 can act as both an acid and a base, and C 2 O 4 2 can act only as a base. 15.8 The conjugate base of any acid is simply the acid minus one proton. (a) CH 2 ClCOO (b) IO 4 (c) H 2 PO 4 (d) HPO 4 2 (e) PO 4 3 (f) HSO 4 (g) SO 4 2 (h) IO 3 (i) SO 3 2 (j) NH 3 (k) HS (l) S 2 (m) OCl 15.15 [H + ] = 1.4 × 10 3 M 14 w 3 1.0 10 [H ] 1.4 10 +− × == = × × 12 [OH ] 7.1 10 K M 15.16 [OH ] = 0.62 M 14 w 1.0 10 0.62 [OH ] × = 14 [H ] 1.6 10 K × M 15.17 (a) HCl is a strong acid, so the concentration of hydrogen ion is also 0.0010 M . (What is the concentration of chloride ion?) We use the definition of pH. pH = log[H + ] = log(0.0010) = 3.00 (b) KOH is an ionic compound and completely dissociates into ions. We first find the concentration of hydrogen ion. 14 14 w 1.0 10 [H ] 1.3 10 0.76 [OH ] × = × K M The pH is then found from its defining equation pH = log[H + ] = log[1.3 × 10 14 ] = 13.89 15.18 (a) Ba(OH) 2 is ionic and fully ionized in water. The concentration of the hydroxide ion is 5.6 × 10 4 M (Why? What is the concentration of Ba 2 + ?) We find the hydrogen ion concentration.
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This note was uploaded on 09/24/2011 for the course CHEM 369 taught by Professor Wang during the Spring '11 term at University of Houston.

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Chapter15ISM - CHAPTER 15 ACIDS AND BASES Problem...

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