Midterm Answer Key

Midterm Answer Key - Midterm A Exam key 1) It is...

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Unformatted text preview: Midterm A Exam key 1) It is often the case that in a situation of language contact, the politically subordinate language adopts more loanwords from the politically dominant language than the other way around. • • True False 2) What is the following passage an example of? I’d get desperate y ahi voy al basurero a buscar, a sacar (and there I go to the waste basket to look for some, to get some), you know. a. Intra sentential code switching b. Heavy borrowing c. Intersentential code ­switching d. A mixed language e. Language attrition 3) It can be difficult to say whether two spoken varieties are different languages or different dialects because: a. b. c. d. There are political and social dimensions to definitions of language. Endangered dialects no longer resemble their parent language. Immigrants are ashamed of their native language. It is not difficult, it depends only on whether they are mutually intelligible. 4) German used to be the most studied second language in U.S. public schools, with over 25% of all students in 1915 reported to be studying German. By 1922, this figure was at 0.6%. What caused this drastic change? a. Language shift b. Anti German sentiments around World War I c. Sudden decrease of immigration from German speaking countries d. b & c only e. a, b & c 5) Which of the following is NOT a factor affecting the viability of small languages around the world: a. b. c. d. e. Destruction of lands and livelihood Spread of western values Inability of endangered languages to express modern concepts. Pressure of assimilation into dominant cultures Policies of repression directed at indigenous groups. 6) Scientific research has shown that bilingualism is not beneficial for individuals and it often leads to academic failure. • True • False 1 7) What is the genetic classification of Kumeyaay, the California language spoken in San Diego? a. Yuman, Cochimí b. Yuman, Delta California c. Athabascan d. Uto ­Aztecan, Delta ­California 8) In the United States, the standard dialect is rhotic, and non ­rhotic varieties are stigmatized. In Britain, it's the other way around. What does this show about the prestige of language varieties? a. Prestige is based on social conventions, not the features of the language varieties themselves. b. Language varieties that are less efficient are stigmatized. c. Prestige is associated with the clearest language variety d. Language varieties that show less careful articulation are stigmatized e. Prestige is associated with language varieties that are best suited to the geography 9) Which of the following is NOT a property of a linguistic sign? a. b. c. d. e. Linguistic signs are arbitrary. The meaning can differ from language to language. There is an inherent connection between the sign and what it signifies. The meaning is established by convention. These are all properties of a linguistic sign. 10) The term Spanglish has been variously used (incorrectly) to describe which of the following phenomena: a. The use of integrated Anglicisms in Spanish. b. Deviations from standard Spanish grammar found among vestigial and transitional bilingual speakers. c. The humorous, disrespectful, and derogatory use of pseudo ­Spanish items in what anthropologist Jane Hill has called mock Spanish. d. All of these. e. None of these. 11) Why is documentation of endangered languages important? a. Language is culturally significant, strongly tied to personal identity and personal heritage. b. Languages capture knowledge about the natural world and human experience in their terminology c. Language is informative about human cognition d. All of these e. None of these 12) The first European language to arrive to the Americas was Spanish. • True • False 2 13) A double negative is a sub ­standard form because: a. It is not rule governed; the two negatives determine a non ­intended positive outcome. b. It shows that the speaker is uneducated. c. It is never used in pure "Shakespearean" English. d. None of the above. 14) Approximately how many languages are there in the world? a. b. c. d. 1,000  ­ 3,000 3,000  ­ 5,000 5,000  7,000 No one knows 15) Covert linguistic prestige is the status given to stigmatized language varieties because they give their speakers a sense of their identity and solidarity. • True • False 16) The "Wug Test" described by Steven Pinker and discussed in class shows that: a. Children learn rules from the words that they hear and apply them to new words. b. Children are sensitive to the frequency of words. "Wug" is a word that they have never heard so they pay special attention. c. Children instinctively understand when they are being tested and produce the appropriate response. d. Children have a linguistic understanding of quantity (one versus many) from a very young age. e. None of these 17) Which of the following is NOT true of code switching in spoken language? a. b. c. d. e. Each language retains its characteristic phonological patterns. It is evidence that the English of Mexican Americans is abnormal. It maintains the grammatical rules of each language. It retains easily identifiable chunks of discourse. It forms part of the basic competence of native bilingual speakers. 18) What is fucking infixation an example of? (absolutely  ­ ­> abso ­fucking ­lutely, but NOT *absolute ­ fucking ­ly) a. Prescriptivist rules learned in formal grammatical education b. Evidence of systematic rules known subconsciously by native speakers of a given language c. Evidence of rules that are learned after the critical period of language acquisition is over d. Evidence of poor grammar infiltrating the grammar of English learners due to an increased use of slang 3 19) The Three Generation Rule states that: a. The third generation of immigrant populations usually returns to the ancestral homeland. b. The third generation of immigrant populations is typically monolingual in the language of the ancestral homeland. c. The third generation of immigrant populations is typically bilingual. d. The third generation of immigrant populations is typically monolingual in the language of the new country. e. None of these. 20) A linguistic situation in which one language is used in personal domains and another in more formal domains such as government and education is said to be: a. b. c. d. e. Language endangerment. A diglossic relationship. A competitive relationship. Encroachment. Moribund. 21) Dialect leveling is a process in which: a. a particular dialect becomes dominant b. all dialects take in features from the standard language c. two or more dialects intertwine to create a mixed variety d. two or more dialects become more like one another e. None of the above. 22) A dialect of a language may emerge as the standard variety because: a. b. c. d. e. it’s the dialect spoken by the most people. it’s the dialect spoken by people in power. it’s the dialect that is most systematic. it’s the dialect that is the most expressive and interesting. it’s the dialect with the largest vocabulary. 23) Why do speakers of non ­standard dialects might find an advantage in learning the standard? a. b. c. d. e. To avoid being stereotyped. To be clearer and more precise. To have a better chance of finding a job. Both (a) and (c), but not (b). (a), (b), and (c). 24) A language that has hundreds of thousands of speakers can be considered to be safe from being endangered, regardless of the pressures their speakers might undergo from a politically dominant population: • • True False 4 25) Linguists use which of the following terms to describe a language no longer being learned by children as their native tongue? a. b. c. d. e. Morose Morbid Marooned Moribund None of these 26) Which of the following is the term for the linguistic classification of languages that share a grammatical property such as being verb ­final? a. Typological b. Areal c. Genetic d. Topological e. Genealogical 27) Which of the following statements is true about Cajun French? a. b. c. d. e. It has its origins in Acadia Most of its speakers are young It is largely identical to Parisian French All of the statements above are true Only a & b are true 28) The distribution of non ­English languages in the US reflects which of the following? a. Traces of old immigration patterns b. Border clustering. c. Concentration around large urban areas. d. a, b & c. e. a & b only. 29) What is the primary source of multilingualism in the United States? a. The education system promotes study of foreign languages. b. Immigrant families generally maintain the language of their home country for many generations. c. Native American communities maintain their languages as part of the cultural heritage. d. First generation immigrants and their children are often multilingual, but few others are. e. None of these. 30) Which of the following statements is true? a. Languages are like animal species and subject to natural selection: only the fittest survive). b. Some languages are prone to extinction/endangerment because their speakers are unable to assimilate to mainstream societies. c. Some languages are prone to extinction/endangerment because they are structurally impoverished. d. Some languages are prone to extinction/endangerment because they lack writing systems. e. None of these. 5 ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/24/2011 for the course LIGN 8 taught by Professor Bakovic,e during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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