cinema taiwan intro-jan 4

cinema taiwan intro-jan 4 - Contents . -. A a m Firm...

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Unformatted text preview: Contents . -. A a m Firm puhlishvd 21m: . by Rumlc-(lm' 1! Park Su'lunrl‘, “Urun Pnrk‘ .'\|1ing(inn. Uxun UK H “(X Lit! r}/_'/r;ggurr'.i X Mi! {J} 'crmriifmrmti SimnIIum-umsly ])I1i}li$][l'(‘] in [hr L's“ and Hamid” Prrfhrr: .S'rrrc'uing rrmh‘mfrmnn firm-mi rim-mu .\'III by anh‘dgt' . . . ‘3?” Mmlimn Aw, Nyh York. NYJIJUJIi Pix-“"11 I I-[-\” Hm-rn'nfgi' r) em Wilfrid“!!! rgf'h‘ir Trfi'fw' Ewan {mug}. rm :'.r_:.fl'amm Imminent! ‘.Ji-}\?Jg:[‘hlargfllynl. -“ I If? ‘JlllI? Edimrinl menu-rand Ht'il‘t'lirlll.“HTTP”‘\Ii"iill1ll)l1\'iFillltithSIlnu \_ I H If.) ‘fii Rulirn {Hit-n, Ihr I'nlllr‘ihlllnH ii-r IiiI-[r l r.r11{ril.:uliml.~' ' (“If “H “mm H’m H H 'I'y'pL-m-I in Biiskrn'illt- h_\ _ . . . . . o o v, 1 Bn.rl.ak('r:ili thl, Strand. (“D1ll'l‘filt’t'fiilil'l' Introduction: Cmema Taiwan, :1 cwxhzmg I'll-1551011- Prinlr'd uurl bnunrl in (in-n! Britain by Amuny Ruwv. I)_\RRI_-LL WILLIAM [Ln-i}. Chippmhum, \\‘th3|1 i11- .\J| riEhls rt'srnrd. Nu purl nl'lliis brink may fn- rt’pl‘illlt'd 01' rt'pi'ruilitnl lll' uliliaui in any Form or by .‘uly vlcrtrrmir. nu-rhunirai. nr mlwr nun-ms. :10“ PART I known or Elt'rrafivr ill\'('l11(‘d. im-Iuding phnlm'upyiug am! rm-rwding, u:- in ' ‘ I.) may illiiirmiilirln itnruqv m n-irim-nl awn-my nitlmul [)r‘i'l'llifisiml in “Tiling POI-“JCS From {hr pulalishi-rs, 1mm Libra {1' (Sufrefrigm'qg m Pubfrl'urirm Burn 1 The vision of Taiwan New Documentary i a -" L‘Hiii‘flfllt' I‘fi'unl [hr [his hunk is :n'niluhh- i'rum lht- British [Jill-aq- KL.'l-'.|-I-'[l:\ (1“ HI Dr‘u'np' rff t‘,'au_grmz~ (.iirr:fi{gr::{u r'rr Pubi'ri'atirm 1M0 [iinrmn 'I‘dimmi hnlilii-x. Prallulnriu. anti slnif' ufrht' ui'lsx’rdiu-rl in 2 Haunted realism: postCOIanlahty and the cmema Of ... Darn-I] William Davie and Rim-aim” KlIiJl'l'l {IIII‘IL T§o_chj ‘1'; FL "m- .. . . lnt‘lllfll‘i i)i|‘liitigl’i1]')hil'ill l'l'li’l't‘lll't’fi and itidr'X. ‘13“th gun“ I. Mutinfl IJivmn-s Tammi. l. Dunk. Dari-MI William. . . . ‘ |‘;\‘151513.5.T28(13[i 3m: 3 The impossflale task 01' Tall"?! films " [ NIL-#3095 i‘J-i'il ({(‘1-3‘.’ EIII'JMJEFIIQH yum IiR.\r;.~:i'H-'.R ISBNIH; U 4:3 4&3? 'Jllnbkf- . o - - - [in ' m Mamland Chmese cmema lh‘HNJuer 4-13; «113:3?! ;- mm- 4 Taiwan IRRNIII: II 'JIIF: fIii-Ir!!! X (rm: RHIJHH (1H! IHBNtii: 1m: I: Hi)- 4i25? .'- II'IiJk- 5 Festivals, criticism and international reputation of ISRNH:FI?H u -|I.’a +1253 grphk ' New Cinema H IHBXi'i: um u 2m fIIi-lil‘l : rink Taiwan (:Hu-(tm \yl' __.. _ _—.I Introduction Cinema Taiwan, 21 ciwilizing mission? Dam]! H Minn: Dam From Wu F eng to Domestic Film Anna Tin= talc Ufa righlmus man. Wu Ft‘ug. mm- film: lhiec: :m ciglm-mnh u-nlun Hun Chint'se‘ nfi'u‘ial. Wu Frng administcrr-d tlu- nmunluinmls inurriur ni"l';1in'a|1. minding its inhuhimms. Gent-rations nf'Tziiu-‘unt'e-il- firhcprull‘hiltirt'n It’éll'm‘d nl‘ him as a mudr] ul‘sacfifit-t‘. silk? “‘1' uli‘c‘rl-rl his mm lifi‘ in cxrlmngv lhr a1 gruup ul' Hfllit’l‘s aliduclcd by almriginul I'u’adhulut-I's. Tlu- lribcsmc‘n. Elt‘l‘LlfitlmH‘d In taking Chint‘sr? [and Init"I‘_];;lp;illn-H:‘}- i'H‘a‘IIB-i lin‘ liluul llsrs‘. \\'{"I‘t" l‘ll'l'fllléldi’fi to slop. Sumt’huu \YLI I’t‘ng madl' them promise In giw up lllt'il' sn\';;1g(- pran‘lirrs, I}lli In' paid li’lt” ll]lil‘t1;'ltt.‘pl'i(‘l‘.l This exemplanj star}- \\';in‘ Eldélplt‘ri {hr classroom [If-t" but 211m lbr tlw puppr-t stslg'mli'n-opt-r21cgrqrzh'imml finally, the m'rrc‘n first by Iln'JupaIu-st- _|¥'I:’:Q':. ll'u‘n in ISHFJ Ii)‘ \\ allxiallg. 21 brimt‘h Ufll‘u‘ Shulighai—ham'd Guntni studio. Tumuu'hm .1“. Ali {.ifii‘imn{Pirg‘rufli Eiil‘t‘t'lt‘d I}_\' martial arts mask-r thlg (:ili‘. “115 Taiwan's Iirsl Mandan'n languagt’ l‘cuiurv.I [11 IEIIE‘ Wu Ft-ng appmn-d unscm'n again in Iln‘ lilm dirlfl'lod by Bu “'nnrang. “Jr Taiwan Hllnlin. zi (Timpani rim Iiy [I‘m liuumimang {Naliul‘mlists ui‘ REIT], 'I‘aimm's ruling lmrTy from IEII-l!| In L’I'HJIL l‘any officials ('nnsidcrrd \Yu Frng In ]J(' a finrrrunm‘r ul' lln-ir' mm lwnu‘x-ulurnl prest‘nu‘ in Taiwan In enlighlc-n and rurlm-m e1 ['n-nplc will Inn ('Ul‘nftll‘lilijlt‘ \x'ilh Jupitnrxe ways"? Thc emu-[Ime- illustrates the mullipir ruins and illmtinm Rt‘l'u’d lay lhlk |1t"1'm'-.»a. III SUC’iI'I‘RiiUIL “"11 Feng appears as (wiltiniulisl. lill’tl in :t ll'itlh-‘itiflllilL t':1¥1lf’tlt‘l'(‘l:li I‘llit'. and lilmll)‘. as l'lilliOIliliiflI i'lt’l't'l. embodying Kill" Git-in Ciliinrm' war On {‘Ilf'I'l‘l_V n‘gimes. [imnjapmwsr mlunizrr In Tniu-zlnmv L'ulnnizc-rl, Wu I’vng‘s rilnl‘_\' is multiplied In val-inns mrrdjn. and In-rn'vt-u (HIR'rml lvxls. 1n lill'fl'll' and variation. Wu l’rrng prvsr-nls :1 mndrl hem doing Ilirr righl Ihinlu'. \th’llu‘r l'in' mltmiulisl. rnrnmtrl'ti'ial, :‘ar nativnalisl t’ndx. \\'|| I’vng play.» his purl. Sellinln'l‘ifit'r. inn-grit). honesty. and pt‘llct‘making butwrt'n rival t’Ilmii' gmnps llll"*it’ \‘nlnrs i'll'l‘ i‘rlunil} usufill lo i‘luillOl'iIiC‘S \i'l'lt'li'lf'l' lht‘y uri' It'ncik‘l‘s, "foreign" t‘I'IilltliZt'Ffi. or Mainland suinurners in “trmpnrang” (Nile-.Japam‘sr mlunizc'rs rommllt'rl 'I‘aiwmi. :1 www- xii r11 gained From China in IRQI‘L For half-4 rr‘nun‘)‘: \-\'|'It‘ll tht' EMT calm“ in IEH Li. [In-y began a systematic program nfanti-communist sinit'izauium lasting dram-1m. Tln’ KNIT minority dominated forjust us 10:15:35 li'IPJfllJilllt'Kt-‘. mn‘l [hr 4-“ _\1'.EII‘2-'. i1 '3 Barrel! ll't'fhhm Davie sttingcnth applied martial law. quelling nearly all dissent. l't'u Feng's multiple appearances on Taiwan screens is more than an educational tool. he attests to the uses ot‘cinema as an enduring enlightenment machine: alwa', modern. progres- sive. the light of civility projected large. While the term citilizing mission" connotes supel'rilious aggression and exploitation: ofnative peoples. its connection will: cinema is contingent. mediated through entertainment. not just education. In more recent times Taiwan cinema moved beyond its utility as teaching device and lullillccl brighter promises. for artistic and social visions. not just official pedagogy. ’l'aiwan's cinematic creativity peaked hemeen [933 and “.193. the age of the 'liaiwan New Cinema. when commercial prospects were dim. hut an opulent Film culture somehow [lowered in unliker circumstances. Taiwan's moribund cotnme rcial industry hegat Hpu Hsian-hsicn: Edward Tang, :1 L's-trained software engineer. returned to Taipei and began filmmaking: late blooming fling Lee started in dramatic arts in the American lt-litlwcst. moved In lieu York L'niversitv film school. then struggled in obscurity before becomng the Spielberg ol'Chinese-langua ge cinema in the 19905. “here does the winding liltn trail lead From here? Though pronounced dead by ctitics in lllllll. the New Cinema and its directors continued to flourish on the rim Festival circuit.1 international festivals are distri- bution and exhibition networks in their own right: the}: serve as markets for commercial transactions. and provide venues without which many films would not he seen at all. In Taiwan. there are many new festivals to complement, and compete with the venerable Golden Horse Awards [est i953]; these operate briskly despite the near‘total collapse of commercial production} For many years now Taiwan—made films have had a negligible presence at the local box oliice. lint lt'sti- vals ol'manv kinds help :itnintain some choice for a variety ol' audiences. Another key shill in chietna’s civiliziug mission is intensifyingr natiiist cultural policies under the DPP I'Dclnncmtic Progressive Party}. which capitalized on lith exposure to take executive lam-er in Hill}! I. and again in ill'llll. Concurrently. with crisis in film production. there arose a variety ol'public and private initiatives to entice ordinal-v viewers. especially youth. hack to the cinema. urgingr cinematic expressions of greateraccessibility and local Focus. These too are civilizing missions in that domestic production ganja“? is promoted as a good obj ect. a reason to go to the cinema. This too has historical resonance. when the [‘1th supimflcdgrwjltmt in the liltills as a policy olhlantlarin language production. which stain overpowered the prolific ‘l‘aiwanese language Iilm industr}. . Again. 20 years later the New [lint-ma was launched by the government studio's “low capital. high production" policy. designed to attract a new. more educated audience to gnefrian monies at a time when Hong Kong imports were dominant." But the latest round ol‘citilizing mission was pursued by the DPP. the EMT} implacahle antagonist. The short lilm Gauguin} Jim-rt. "Domestic Film Alright." was commissioned hv Taiwan's Gme mment Information Ollice as a public service announcement in 2004.». Screened as a trailer in Taipei cinemas. the short comhined antiquarian silent-fill]: style with sophisticated music and digital graphics: Its message: come see our new. local movies u different. refi‘eshing. and was hetter than vou Introduction 1‘] thought. The 35mm Iilm was made by voting, independent filmmaker 1t't‘u Misen. featuring: the then director ol‘GlU. LinLIialout... as “Brother Dragon" in a series of romantic pursuits. The ohject is the silent. listless .z'tnna. a beautiful emblem ol‘Taiwan-made films. The films title plat-s on the name ol‘ Domestic Film Anna: a pun on the Hold-den ".r'tn-la." everything all tight. no worries. In the film. Brother Dragon is given one hundred ways tJl' courting Anna rend Domestic. locally made film't in which motifs and gags are lilicd from In nit- .lltma' fin Lace. Crouching Tiger. Hidch Dragon. and .-l (.ih' offl'l'rnt'neo. as well as Taiwan pop- music idols. Bv example and ii}; exhumation . young audiences are urged to seek out: pursue. and energize Domestic Film :ltnna. To improve local liltns' reputation. the short presents a “creative treatment of actualitv-“ placing local films in the company of international icons in hopes of narro‘m'ng the gap between lht‘I‘tLJnlltl (lriet'satm's glass on documentary is ttscllll because it changes focus from pedagogy to persuasion. and even seduction. Hoopla]: .‘lmm' seeks lo alert and allure younger audiences to the domestic lilms‘ appeal. boostng localism via associated global cachet. The lil m tries to carve out a space in whichgacupirm mat- once again entertain Taiwan \icuers. plotting a middle course between global milestones and loud hits. Tt't’ith no more studio production in Taiwan. with the business ol'exhi :5 i112 popular lilm ceded to Hollywood ntoties. Taiwan filmmakers must somehow plv their craft. searching out promising: mate— rial. funding. and audiences. townie" Juno tries to wean 'l-lell'atl audiences from their dependence on foreign entertainment. just as Wu Feud. in his man; guise-t. redeem»:- a people attached to older. uncivilizcd ways. Political cormnentaries, cinematic accounts Taiwan is a ntaclstmm ol charged political. cultural. and social contestation. Despite an educated. cosmopolitan people. its tlcmocmtit' and demotit' pmt [lifts are sn'augclv hermetic. This is another reason for the heterogeneous. unsettled quality of "Cinema Taiwan." The island itself has recently attracted insightful political commentary From the left." This is a welcome change li‘om the cardboard role it played during the [iolcl 1liar and after. as “Free China." No longer is Taiwan just an anti-communist rampart. just as the PRC i-. no Ionizer unequivocally socialist and progressive. Regionally. Hong Kong is now securely. within a national Fold instead ol’tlte British empire. and Taiwan. UI'tt't‘ the sole. legitimate rt-pa'esete tative ol'China. is a stateless canon—v. like such ll: ugh: places as Tibet. Xinjizutg. Chechnya. or Palestine. 'I'aiwan must work constantly to li'ee ilsell'li'nm shacklng mics imposed by various global l'orces. some oi'which were acceptahle and even welcomed in the past. Internationally. 'l'aiwan works like a lah experiment in national sell-definition. Dontcsricallv. though Taiwan politics and media olicn is a lice-for-all. it is still emphaticth li‘ee. ll’ltilc Taiwan's ruling partv is ltartllv secure. thcd‘tr'ocilcmusness and venom of its critics testifies to a hrlttullv robust democratic public arena. Given the excruciating farce ofthe March 2004 presidential election. when the incumbent was charged with falling his own assassination. the status ol' national sl- Darrell Iii-Illicit: Dar-it legitimacy is hard-fought and precarious. For weeks aliens-aid. the KMT hltie camp staged huge demonstrations calling the election a tawdry burlesque. as waves oft'ecouan. and court cases sought to resolve the crisis. Two years later. President Chen found himself fighting impeachment for corruption in his party and imme— diate family- In ordinary lile. 1 mood ofcollectiye li'tistt'ation. chagrin. and recalci- trance is palpable disillusionment nith the quality of domestic politics." though this has not yet dampened Tani-anest- nationalism. drin notes ‘t‘t'ang Chaol‘tua.‘I I What interests commentators is Tani-ans shift from authoritarian patemalism to an open society. participator}. contested. and highly fraught. it has mutated front a right-wing numeracy and bitter antagonist ofs'tsian socialism into an island oi‘clicersity. democratic. peaceful but still profoundly (lit'idetl. while remaining a no-less-implacablc foe ol‘the PRU. Since tlte K5 ITI’s toppling in 200“. [he Taiwan Strait remains a llasltp-oint. despite increasing economic investment across the waters. {lltcn Shui—liiatt‘s embattled administration is so loathed by PRC bosses that there have been historic gestures ol'tletente between the opposition K.th and the CCP on the hlainlancl. "' Historically. “I'aiu'an people hare carried their fan.- will: resilient aplomh. but deep striations and scars marl: the society: colonial. military. ethnolinguisfic. class. regional. and generational polarization. Little wonderTaiwan's recent film culture is seen in terms ofsarlness. invoking Hou’s famous film. and prompting wonder at what :1 post-sadness era ntigltl he." Looking out. Taiwan's geopolitical status is ambiguous. behaving like a well-armed state but unable to be one in the world‘s eyes: looking in. often shrill aSsertions ofethnicity. crass politicization. and unease pluralism are heard. given the island‘s waning economic prospects and an aging population. In Taiwan we see roiling confluence of political. institutional, and commercial forces. and this disperses creative. and critical energies through a mecliatized social body. This starkly contrasts with Taiwan‘s New [Jincma oftlie l'i'llfls. a movement defining itself in opposition to the authoritarianism of martial law llEH-Frllll'ifl. Taiwan New Cinema was a reaction to state power and concentration ofcultural production: this gave the New Cinema immediate political significance. and allowed some latitude from marketplace constraints. Its liberal exception to a state- run didactic cinema earned the movement great international respect.” Chia- chi Wu says in her essay. Taiwan New Cinema expressed powerful allegorical functions ol‘would-he national legitimacy. playing to a global stage for politically significant cinemas oftlie world. Now. however. "Cinema Tainan." as critical- creativc responses to local film‘s dispersion. is disttnified. scattered. and without the polarizing power ofstate repression. Taiwan‘s contemporary conflicts and confir- sions produce. and are manifested by "Cinema Taiwan." but the films do not allegotize them within a mocernent the way New Cinema did. Unlike Taiwan cinema. a coherent film culture within a national cinema framework, Cinema Taiwan is heterogeneous. This concept cloes not assume a norm ofnarratisr feature lilmmalting within industrial patterns of commercial production and consumption. Rather. Cinema Taiwan includes alternative not unique to Taiwan. of course. There is “a measure of introduction 5 modes of film form. storytelling, marginal voices. and practices that question cinema's position as a national culture. It chips away at normative presumptions. fragmenting commonly held assumptions of the movies as primarily national. artistic. or commercial enterprises. Because gunfire“ or Chinese-language movies have been so emasculated in the tttnt'ketplace. commercial objectives arcjust as risky and challenging as those from activist filmmakers or [he arant-gardc. For user a decade Hong Kong and Hollywood blockbusters have ruled Taiwan‘s screens. but more recently the colonized have gotten restless. Imagina- tii'e financiers. marketing experts. pmclucers. and performers have begun to diverge from narrative styles that hare worn thin with the puhlic. Such changes are noted. and mostly applauded by intellectuals. 1who classifi- the varieties of local exemption. Sometimes these are. rqiudiations. directly contesting cornmen cial channels and textual address tfilm' (the (inning: Franmrfo ift; others selectively adapt Hollywotfl modes ofprotltlction to local genre conventions [Dattblt' linirm‘: yet another approach rckindles cinematic technique from indigenous qualities unique to Taiwan's popular traditions [kinetic puppet epic legrtttfaf‘rhr harm! Smite {hilt-rug 531i cougar-firm. Chris Huang. it’lllfl]. Splendid Haul Lian gin-org .rr' site grit-rune". Zero Chou. Llilihl't a magic realist road music with Taoist transt'esote sliamansi. Yet another response is a recent cycle ol'popular. essentially humanisl documew titles such as GM (Ff-Life (Elongation. Wu ‘t'ifcng. EiHlel'l. commemorating sun'icoi's of the great earthquake of lll'llli. iii It Br t'llit mi a. tan Lauquan and Ehuang ‘r'izeng. 12005). a portrait of' four southern rice farmers. and lit-n Torte? e The [inner Age ITioeu'tt initial. _]iau ‘u't'eisi and Guo Zhendi. Elllllil. Another success was Banting Dreams [Coca dioqggttn. l‘t'ayne l-‘eng. 2003}. about a Taiwanese clatter instructor working in Shanghai. All these films crossed over to mainstream awareness and success. sometimes clue to public rnt‘lt_’rrsen‘|enls by popular politi- clans.” Because of what twenty-firm century Taiwan has become. Cinema Taiwan too is unpredictable. unlikely to resolve into a clearly focused big picture. IfTaiwan New Cinema was a reaction In a Cold 't’l'ar propaganda industry. it is hard to now outline something like a constellation. let alone any concerted more- rrtent. Like its fractured ethnic and political composition. today‘s Cinema Taiwan is at once more market-driven and cosmopolitan. mon'jagged and f‘rlll'llfll'llil. with many film cultures jostling in a wide array of representational assertions. This is why Cinema Taiwan is interesting now: all this clicersit y and disunity. a dramatic. conflicting area full ofhoth tension and creation. ll'this is a cinema ol‘sadness. it is not one ofpassice resignarion. There are few places in the world so bust.r pursuing a huge range of exciting cultural activity. Taiwan's slowing economy does not diminish cultural or political expectations: rather. cultural narratives are enrich ed by contradictions faced daily by Taiwan people. Shrinking economic fortunes and a contentious. prickly st:ci¢t}-' do not make for happiness, but they also present challenges and opportunities for narrative ans like film. theater. and literature. Performance arts {like scandals and parq' politics] are the greatest beneficiaries, thanks to an abundance of excitable electronic and print coverage. Politics. accordingly- partakes liberally in outlandish 1nelodrama,sensa- tionalism. and excitement. As a combination of all these. Cinema Taiwan can be Ei Darrell ll'illimrt Darn understood in terms of its pluralism- freely mixing films and video across a spec- trum of commercial. experimental. edinotrraphic. and oppositional impulses. Here there is passionate partisanship. a fiery pluralism far removed from our tepid appeals to tolerance in Western multiculturalism. Politics, popularity, state of the arts institutionalization ollilm studies in Taiwan is evident. bringing a great prolil'ere ation ol’ objects. methods. and approaches. tuith improved access to local and regional tests. There are several reasons for this flowering. including lowered barriers to information and communication technology. aligned nith cultural and political factors. Since 2000 there has been an explosion of DVDs. online community at'ritism. and greater acceptance ofl'fiiwan's vernacular I'orrns. In the past. llte existence. of'Taiwanese language films {mire pica] was noted. hut not much pursued. Now investigation of these- along with puppet theaters. regional perfomting arts. records ol'theJapanese colonial era [in both popular and official forms]. Christian missions. heritage preservation, aboriginal programs etc. are encouraged. exhibited. and often Bonded by government cultuan agencies. There is now much. litllcr recognition and itpprecialion of artifacts and texts from eras dominated his former taskmasters. These tests are handled using critical tools adapted from. abroad. The prolifera- tion of analytical strategies can be seen in the essais to follow. Every Taiwan scholar in this volume has significant experience ofthe. li'est. “so: higher degrees from the US or France. while every Western contributor has long experience “ill‘t Taiwan and its cinema. As elsewhere, liltn scholarship itt Taiwan has cleared path- ways to and away from the medium. Using lflfl‘i'lt’ti as platforms to discuss erect:- th'tng from Alt-blah to Zizelt." Films and film culture are less specific objects or targets of specialized study than pretexts: they provide means to think visually. imaginatively. and laterally. Far from heng reduced to mere heuristic. this cine- tnatic imagination opens to wider. cross-media issues. consolidating film scholar- ship as a postcolonjal. post-propaganda civiljaing act. Accordingly- there are limitations to this volume. since Cinema Tainan is conflicting. moving beneath and beyond directors. genres. and feature narratives. As a moving target. Cinema Taiwan offers enticements we cannot always follow: key films like Ely? LamirtcfiHoLl HSiilU-llSicll. 2004}. Tim-r Time's [HotL 2005;. and sex musical Clint l'l-itnmrd Cloud thaj Ming-hang. 200:3]. Other scholars “ill certainly talre on these challenging works. Cinema Taiwan lacks the coherence and national integrity of the earlier New Cinema. because it‘s too fragmented and colliding. Cinema Taiwan is interde- pendent with conflicting notions of nation-statehood. and occasionally. alto- gether inclilierent to nationality. Cinema Taiwan therefore moves away from old models of national identity without resolving into something definahlr new. still very much in process. Sometimes the relations between film representations and national politics is iisihle and explicit. as spelled out clearly in Kuei—fen Chin's discussion: of m?“ documentaries. But at others. the relation is invisible. or simply newsman 7 not apparent {see Fran Martin and Darrell Davis chapters on popular twirl-:51. In other contexts the li‘amework is popular. but also ttrhan and rnediatized. as revealed in the chapters hr Yomi Braester and‘jatnes Tweedic. And. Cinema Taiwan is international. supported hr distant lines ol'linrtncc and critical recog- nition like Plymouth! {Franc-:1. Pusan Production Plan '5. Korea'l. and Shochiltu flapan'l. Taiwan's leading directors t-njn}: support li’om international investors. distributors. and arts boards who see in these talented artists globally compelling "labels." rather than just commercial film directors. [lthese New {Iiuetna figures are non canonizcd. then young filmmakers hack in Taiwan have to strilrc out in other directions. Since the 19305 English-language scholars and critics have heen tttlten with Taiwan lilms. For Frr'dricJarneson. the. emphasis is on 'l'aipei's globalirs- in “Remapping Taipei.”j ltt its high-rise. confinement. tlrltan alienation. casual hetrasals. and cruel mists of' chant e. ‘Janteson despecilies the cily's precise sociopolitical coordinates. which results in :t “hhtrring” ol"l'aipei's local flavor. as Ping-hni Lino notes in our preface. Seeking account of Taipei itself. as well as Yang‘s modetirist rendition of it. may he too much. since Jameson is neither geographer nor anthropologist. NonetltclessuIatnesons {overjlemphasia on Yang‘s nat't'aLivc sophistication betrays surprise that such roth materials as 'l'aitvan city-foil: field such modernist and postmodernist Ion-n. [Jl‘coursc that‘s part of jameson‘s point. that postmodernism is inherent in the third world. just as the third world dwells 1within 'first] world capitals. Overall. the astonishment that Yang. Hou. Tsai and others came out of "nowhere" hecattsc that‘s exactly. where Taiwan is in the. minds ol‘ even the most appreciative of l't‘eslern film critics e discloses a presumption about sources til-innovation in the cinema. The charge here is nol ethnocemrisrrt so much as exoticism. lhe explorers outlook. where effort and taste is rewarded by an adventurottsness that can find new surplus csthetic value. wherever it surlaces. This broadminded liberalism is behind American {inrlrlnt's ofmulticulturalism because it shtm't'ast‘s "our" will- ingness to taltc "their'" works seriously. from outside ‘t‘t‘estern canons. coming From "nowhere." More specifically. the esplorer's mentality is essential for Festival programmers who scour the world for new waves and discoveries. But we can champion Taiwan and other geographically marginal filmmakers nithout awarding extra points or a handicap for remoteness even li‘otn Asian ('FI’IIF‘T‘: of production. Ret'alljamesou trying to locate Yang in relation to some llaiulalttl Chinese directors. now Ehrgotteo. 'lltis shows him falling hack into concentric thinking. pointing out what he takes to be obvious. “that Taipei does not possess the profile or the historical resonance and associations ol‘ the great traditional mainland cities. nor is it that all-encompassing closed urhan space oi'a virtual city-state like Hong Kong" :ll’lll. 'Fllill may lie. but there is a payttll'. Cinema Taiwan. a place that’s non here. at least in terms of a regular nation. but still productive: a protcan country that only exists onscreen. More positive-lynlameson and other Tainan cinema anttlvsts have kept these filmmakers on the map in rctrospcctives and college lilnt courses in the ‘tl'est._iurr when Taiwan directors were having trouhle reaching local audiences. Taiwan ll Hamil ll idiom Illfl'i‘th cinema is one of sun-ital. speaking to audiences worldwide. eyen extending to foreign funds for its filmmakers to keep working. "‘ They have enjoyed a second life on the festival circuit- in retrospectives, and museums. At home. these filmmakers are recognized: but the audience for their work is not there and Hit were up to the local theatrical market they would have. already retired to other fields. Today. Hon Hsiao-hsien is a celehrily in TaiwanJapan. Hong Kong. and maybe Paris but his films do nul sell. despite strenuous effoNs to cast brooding stars and shoot youth- orieutcd stories. This is just one of the many paradoxes of Cinema Taiwan. Il'it comes out of nowhere — out of martial law, colonial trauma. and perennial marginalization 7 then maybe the cinema is where 'l'aiwan finds its most apt, eloquent espression. Cinema Taiwan — a place where Taiwan is located by movies, rather than Taitt'antese] cinema. ' The volume you hold is a Foray into the cultural politics of contemporary Taiwan film. which brings into focus several developments since the. famous milestones of Hot: Hsiao-hsicn. Edward ‘t’ang. Ang Lee. Tsai Ming—hang, cf of. This cinema‘s artislic reputation remains imposineg high. despite over a decade passing since Hou’s Good Men, Good lI-iimm :199571. the final film in his Taiwan trilog'. Starting with this film, the essays in this book take stock since. the New Cinema. but they are not limited to the last decade. Certainly- the estheric quality and historical richness of the New Cinema and suhsequent developments quali- lies Taiwan film as a cit-ilizing lbrtc in world cinema. Like Caspisndnan. these essays try to cross orer. spanning the gaps that structure ordinary expectations ol‘local cinema. There are updates. as well as linkages across dilfet'cnt worlds: h-t’l‘wt‘en “old mastersr of the New lClinerna and young talent with dillh’ent horizons and ambitions; between fiction features and documentary story- tellers: and between innovations of the art cinema and attempts to re-grow a popular audience for entertainment. In this t‘oltune, we introduce a number of brand-new texts. topics. and approaches: contemporary hit features little-known outside Tails-an: makeup calls to jaded urban youth: crossovers thorn pop literature and music: new formations ol‘gc nderfsexuality; the impact oftlottfictitttt and auto— biography; re-readirigs ol'popular classics in light ol'contempotat'y cultural prac- tices. All these are chili:ng in the sense that they git-'e vent to social pressures. and scelt out levers to shill film culture into new expressive registers. Interest keeps rising in the cinema ol‘ Taiwan. going beyond auteut‘ist modes IfBordwell. Ellllt'i: ‘t’eh and Dari s. sonar. yestiges ofthe New Cinema [Berry and Lu. eds. Ellflfij. M. Berry. 2005']. and the nation-state argument IjYip. Elllllslfildf The authors in Linema- Taaran consider knotty problems ofpopulariry. conflicts between transnational capital and local practice. non-fiction and independent filrtunakiug as emerging modes of address and attempts to forge vibrant film cultures em— bedded in identity politics. finder! sexuality. and community activism. .mnhitious. insightful. and challenging. the essays here will draw your attention to a globally significant field of cultural production. Giten the complexities or Taiwan film whine and scholarship. it is probably arbitrary to try to thctuatizc them. Nonetheless, the eSSays in this book can be seen from at least three angles: the politics ol'represeritation: new uses for popular texts: p————-———l—.-— formulatier 1] and what can be called "state of the arts." the key csthctic decisions made by film- makers. as delineated by astute critical analysis. Rcrersiug this formulation an of the statcjI may hint at Taiwan life as a narrated show. a shadow play of nation- Ijrslatcllton-d Iantalizingly flickering across rnoyie. teletision. and computer screens. Though hard to come to a definitive summary. we could say the uarratiyc flashes captured in Clams; Trait-aw work like a microcosm. signposting recent episodes in Taiwan film. In this regard. the collection is an album of exemplary moments. something like the titrious incarnations of Wu Frog. faithfully pcrlorntiug his chic duties through the years, Politics of representation Taiwan's politics ol‘ representation are esplorcd in essays by Knci—l'cn Chin. Chris Berry. ‘t'otni Braester. and Robert Chi. Kucivfcn Chin‘s essay critique:- the New Cinema. comparing it unfayocahly with contemporary actiyist doc 11— rnentaries that lend images and yoiccs to "the voiceless." (iltiu's argumeul directly confronts "pcrfomiatirity‘l in three films about marginal communities. Taiwan aboriginal tribes dependent on tourism [and lhercliire on visual inscrip- lion}. lesbittt'u'gay communities in Taipei. and the historical salt-age ol'ojazz age in Taiwan's occupation em: all these are voiceless- in the sense ul' sum-ring discrimination. orjust being lalJtJn. like that oJ'the 228 Incident in lht' ktle lEll’ills. when Hou and his team were preparing the groundbreaking .l {in uf'.\'.rrd'.r.ln.r. Berry's chapter considers the rule ciftlte "fantastic" in Chang 'l’so-chi‘s films. Closely analyzing The Best all—nun !2lJll2':. Berry argues that lltc litntaslic works as a double or stand-in for the socially marginalized and dispossessed. He intru— duces the idea of "haunted realism" to link the ghost film with postcolouial critique e not only ofcontem porary Taiwan society. but of realism in particular New Cinema films. and cinematic techniques ol- realism in general. In "The Impossible Task of Taipei Films." Yomi Braester discusses cinematic tisttalizalion ol'the city in terms ol'ougoing projects on the esthctics. and politics oi demolition. Using the trope or the crime scene hazard tape. Bracstcr wettt't's together fiction and non-fiction. Taiwan andJapan. and I‘alltasyeclhttogfi‘aphy to yield unexpected insights on Taipei as junction between physical location and urban discourse. Of special interest is what used to he a ubiquitous feature of Taiwan's cities. the veterans villages gunman}. which have in recent years been systematically razed to make way for new. middlewlass neighborhoods suitable lot shopping and other. more profitable pursuits. Braester brings this t'Tl'llttJ'thlpltlt‘. artit-ist dimension into dialog with the an cinema. especially the tilrns ol"l‘sai filing—Hang. It is well known that both Taiwan and the PRL were and still are ultraasensitlyc about media representations ol'cach other. By approaching Taiwan's dillicult nationhood through its ambiguous representations in Mainland Chinese cinema. Robert Chi finds a cou met-colonial regime at work. lChi rctt'orlts Lacanian notions of the mirror phase to discover yaliatiuns on mimicry and dialectical reflections. But “jus1 who is mimicking whom." and with what sort of historical baggage. is a ll} Darrell lli'lt'itrrrt Doris question that takes us into the uncanny. with China coating to mimic the csthetics of Hot: Hsiao-hsien. This step takes cinema representations well beyond the. conventions of Maoist narration. and later Filth Generation accounts ofTajss-an. Lilte Robe rr Chi. Cilia-chi Wu takes a comparative approach. describing the posi- tion til-Taiwan New Cinema when launched on the international festival circuit. l‘t'u’s essay is an antdytical account of New [linema‘s strategic engagements with 1\v't’cstcrn programming categories. noting the alliances between practices and theory. film styles. and criticism. Popular texts New approaches to the popular are visible in the essays by I-lsiao-hung Chang. Robert Ru-shou (lltanatne-s Ttt-‘eedir. and Fran h-lartin. Hsiao-lrung (Ihang subjects touching Tigtr. Hidden Dragon to a witty interrogation using globalization. stunttvorlt. and Chinese r;ng gong [llight powert. Given her interest in corporeal and medical diagnosis. shc speculates on the skeins ol‘transnationality hiding in union films' various guises. .i'tng Lee's rriurnph is provocatively positioned as an "outsider" Iilrn. upsetting comfortable categories lilte national and transnational cin cma. In this manner Chang contributes a valuable entry in the clinical trials of this seminal film. and in the genre ofrnartial arts. Ru-shou Robert Ultcn andJamcs T‘n’ffdlf both write about the Chen lino-fit hit from 2002. Dfil'fl'll‘rlt' listen. This surprise. box office winner is a stylish fusion of hr-ITCrr. lilm noir. and specifically Taiwanese themes. Chen points out that this IweIl—«t_-.rali.ed and marketed genre filru s something unheard olin contemporary Taiwan movies — SllU‘II'S signs olttonoadicdon and ambiguity. He puts the film into an argument about realism and digital imagery, and also give-s his essay a surprise ending. a sudden special eflectjames Tu‘ecdie wants to place Donal: little: in a line- ol'city films. comparing it with urban figuration in Taiwan's art cinema. but also 'shosving the continuities with city lilrns fi'ont Europe. Enchantment. disillusion- ment. nostalgia. and dystopia are all themes in Twecdie‘s argument. which drans on theories of art and architecture in making his case, 'l‘vvecclie also presents talu- able material on the evolution of Taipei onscreen, giting special thought to Tsai lt-ling-Eiang‘s films. nith their unique aura ol’allitctionatc decay. Fran Martin contributes a perceptive piece on the youth filtn Blur Gate (hast-int: {ZONE}. tying its tomboy narrative to contemporary pnnw‘rsian markets. She proposes that Tee Chili-yen‘s film marks the moment when lesbian identity poli- tics enters fully into Taiwan's entertainment culture. accounting for the film‘s corporate backing. its textual appeal. and structured ambiguities that tiller plea- sures to both heterosesual and gay. Taiwan and international audiences. 111 this way Martin avoids the antinornies ol' despecification!respecification that man} oppositional readings use. Darrell Davis' essay. "Trendy in Taiwan.“ reflects on the question of popularity in contemporary film. and links directly nitlt Martin’s line discussion or ntulticoding in recenl films like Blue Gore trusting. but it also brings in intertextual. cross-media factors like the. puppet theater. television. and comics. __ —_— —rhtwm -.—__-—.._... Introduction 1 1 State of the arts Finally. state of the art: Tainan cinema continues its inspiring procession of esthe tic fertility. This artistry is finely outlined by Peter Rist. Yong Han Linhlatncs Lid-den. and Emilie Yuch-yu Yeh. ‘itatc of the art means more than advanced special effects or elaborate technique: it is the state ofcriticistn. history. and theory too. These four essays are a tour clc lin'ce ol'carcl‘ul detail and s} nopticjuclgntcnt- remarkable in their ellhrts to pinpoint and analyze varioUs lilntnral-ters‘ tvorlt. They range from the historical I'Risl on King Hu'i- to a reli'anting or term eclialjudgment of King Htt's most famous film [Lin on Tsai .‘rling—liangfia to a seminal tvnrl; in the New Cinema {L'ddcn on Hon Hsiattvltslntt}. Peter Rist ollco an engaging reassessment ol' the tvorls of King Hu. detailing Hu's essentially theatrical. yet experimental impulse in revitalizing martial arts {tr-ruin. Rist makes the case that King Ht: deserves greater prominence in the film historical canon For his ingenious solutions to technical problems. It's not of! en that “eighty academicjudgtncnts are made in onehword sentences: "Stunning!" Yong Han Liu moves to “tisihlc signamres.‘ seeing the hand of director Tsai Ming—liang in sly subversion cpl—older martial arts traditions in (audios-Dagmar fun 90113}. in a highly original approach. Lin employs the French literature on Framing and staging to account [or Tsai's intent-noon in heroic Chinese films of the past. Liu shows how Tsai‘s film coach: a criticism. in ever sense ul'thr tcmi. as well as homage to King Hu's classic film.jamcs l'dden also encounters directorial signature. seeinga style shift — a sudden change in director Hou‘scinematogmphy in fated .Ucrr. Gflmlr llitmcn. After careful description. L‘dden queries the role and significance ol'stylistic change. arguing that Hon‘s radical alteration has irnplicav tioru not only lot his own body of work and Tainan cinenta's reputation :as national cinema}. but also For Asian film generally. Etttilit- ‘t'ch ollirrs a thorough analysis of historical and historiographica] issues. bringing to the fore a new pin-a- digm of genre criticism. centering on neat-i ;_literature-and-artI. In a hide-ranging study. she argues For a recasting of generic categories to more accurately capl Lll't' historical realities of audience experience. It is significant that every essay here is profoundly historical. in line 1.vitlt Tait-ran cinema‘s traditional se nsitivity to vestiges ol‘the past. as well as to the rise and fall of past authority figures. This historical Ihcct lcnch a happy contingency to trhatcvct orthodoxy currently holds power. whether that is a critical. theoretical. or political regime. In sum. {firm-um Trait-m: vividly presents 'l'aitvan film's engagement and struggle with politics. art. culture. and entertainment. The (Janna Tarn-arr collec- lion resonates beyond Chin esc-la nguagc film cultures. addressing a wide range of issues on the state olcincma as a tin-m of popular. yet t-ltttllenmttg art in the Asia Pacific. I2 Dame? l'l'iullt'mn Daria Notes I In Fan‘l trickery was involved: “'1; Frng iEI tit:- [I'llJL'SITII'I] "haunt-st" a apt-rial wring-aw. (kt-53rd in It'd. instead al'thr usual E‘mp ulClIiIit‘Et‘ liarmern: llit‘ special rfit‘i man turned out 1n- l'J(' master “in I'htg ltinlit'lf. Frittan aflrr his brittatling, and this SD inthI-sst‘tl tilr natives thal [lacy aitpphsrtlly gaw up E'Icadl'ltlltlittg l'urtimith. 2 Emilit- ‘I'urli—yu ‘l‘l‘ll and Darrell ‘I‘t’illiaim Daria. 'firii‘wm film Dr'rrdmx; .~l Trramrr Irle [New York: Columbia University Prusa. 20mm. 131- ill. 3 ‘I'iugfin Zhang, {.L’tt'arjr.-‘i?trimrm' (inertia [Ni-tr ‘r'rirlt: Routlrclgr. 200-13. i23. l» Minuu and Littngh'ilthua. rds. Dwarf: gflfie. ‘IE'a' (Sinatra i'l'ztipri: Tatngshan. 193?; 54-9. the illusimtitin m: p. EH. :3 Sonti-nl'lhtsr nrw fi-slit'aLi inrludr Taipt-i ltllcrttuliuual Film Fustit'al. 'i'aiwan Biennial Dmumt-Iitary Film Flam-a]. tlir Feminist Film I’t'stit'alt (Jr-can Film Fl'NIii'aL .-‘mimatiua1 Film Festival. ctr. F) 31:11 and Davis. 5.? fig. ? [saw (Juripirmemm a multiplex showing ntnstlt' bL-lon' a scrt'cniug ol'Oliu’t-r Await-a! (.i'rmr .LEUU-l ‘ El Prn'y .-\I|drt‘snn. "Stand-Ollin Taih'ztll.” Lamar” Rm'nr imei-mJum- 3. EWH: Bl‘l'lfiiifi .‘ttttltmll. "HI-strut Nationalism. Flask-rt: Nationalism: is then“: a Dilli‘rttnt‘e Ilial Halters": War by? Rf."i‘i‘i‘t":l {May Jum‘ 2!)” I J: 3i -l"—’ ._. .‘St't' 3le [hr :ruuntllnblr Ell-Scllfifllml among film Tit-IrlL-ain. 'l'ani: Nut). Hsia Clan-Jar. and Hm] Hsiao-haicn: Brtwtlicl Anderson. “'I't'tisions in 'l'aiwan." Rtfih‘r 23 [July August Ell-[34}: IE} 112‘. 5' H‘aithitaoliua. "AL—1'21“: oI'Twu Naliotmliams.".lF-tthgflRa-ztrtt' IEQIMaJ’rlt :‘tprilfltllflfifu: BL 10 Iii-IT chairman Lien Chan‘s visit to thr- Mainland in 11‘s: Khl'l' lli‘Tl China in “4+9. He rqralf-(I Inn-malaria. and I‘L'i‘tfi‘flt‘tl a liaskrtolrr01101nir and tmdv: inmnliws For further inlrgraliuu with llll' PRC. Lir'n Chan's histnrit- audit-arr u'iili Party M‘i‘l‘i‘iaf‘y Hujiman is a (lasaic rast' nf“ll]r t-nr'my ofittjr t-Itrm} 'r: my flit-ml." thuugh that apparent fi-icntitltip in E‘Dillll'k grin on local political nanditinris on hmlt sides. and many pulilit'iam and wmmt‘ntalrma presented his guttin- ol'tlt‘irnu- area a En-tntjral tif'l'ttin'an. l 1 Sr? Muilittg ‘Iu'I'u. "Pnslsadncss Tait-ran Nt-h Cint‘ma." in (litirzcrh'mgnrtgr Film: Heirflm'ngv infill. .lt‘l'm'fi'h. Pariah. L‘dfi Sheldon H. Ln am! I‘lmilit- TllclI-‘fll ‘I't-Il .memlulti: Liniwrsity 0f Hauaii Pi't‘Sfi. HUD-5L TEES. The “satllluss“ tirst'ription was used rather by Huang Rru in fi”!i}ffl{fl Trafmprim [111t- snmwr of'I'ttits-nitt-st-»I:titg1:ztgz- films] :"l‘aipci: H'anxinng. 199+]. I-[rll'l‘lfitl films. in lattc EDD-I. 11 was run I:. starring Maggie [flat-1mg Fulani-nth. April 21305 was Lanl'L‘CLTll'IIIlTl sitttr the visit in 2005. will: a hug? di-Itgittitm rif' l2 Tlti: nan-maria lLl‘t‘tli to lh' quaiifit'd. <int‘r Taiwan Nth (Tim-m:- was ruablrtl ht Central Mntion Pirturt- Corporation. [lll‘ ii Ihr iii-IT. Imkiugtu rfiroup 2t (IL-dining film maria- scc tart-d insrcarl a small but prestigious global Nt-w (Enema. cat-niplifirrl 113- Hair. Yang. Chlat} Halutlg-piltg and Edmutttl Huan :i mm‘rmt‘nt lm stutlin flM'lIt‘L'l and Upl‘f‘illfl‘l by t. It Failed [t1 arm-ct that [llTiilllf‘ hut il market. The gilde I'L'FlLllillIlDII or'l‘aiuan 'l'sai (1:73,. was cementh by rrilic: Iikr Pram gJiant-tr. whu argued strr-nuuuslif For thir tum-r— mt-nl's lihrrzitinniat impulses. Taiwan New (Tm-rim rcpn‘wntt‘d a way um from raw.- commenriztlism. :IS “TH iIS gm'crnment propaganda See ‘I'ch and Dan-is. fit! -Ei5. I3 I'hnm-r pn-sirlr-m l-E‘t' 'l'L-ng-Itui ensured Jim Trauan 11111qu by rrpratedly' taking i1 up in the media and can: had 3 plil'alt? screwing: a! his Wildfl'lrll‘. Pn'sidcnt Chen Sltui- him: went on retard to sea} fl‘gii'rgfbfi hm! math,- him weep. and urged fil'l‘lfi’Tflih‘flflt‘Sl‘ to RT it. Gm- wns Chi-n rival illul mayor nl‘l'aipt-i Ma Ying—jrou who said it mittlt‘ him wrep. 1m]. Ulla-r tltrumeularitrs taking this "ptililit'ian—prunnotional" pat]: an- Stat-tr Lin-rim. u: “'llil'l‘l Prusitlt-nl Chm was invited and jam!!! Heer Elllf‘ndl'd E33; Prentit-r Frank Hsich Chang—ting. Sn- Ktm Li-lisin. "Scmimr mall-5:11 and Dc-Pulitirizalirm: Sum:- l‘rnhlrms 0r Dm-urncnian' (lulturt' in (loattcnith-rary Taiwan." Bonn-amalg- Brit '25 :‘Augusl 21105;: Iii Eli. I’lfflldflli’ilflfl‘ I 3 H t'Ui-Iiinn is the nick-namr ol' (:lll'll Slmi'bian. lhl'i'illll'ill arr-Jinan sim't' 2001] find lint-nati- chair (:I' the Dt-niocrauit‘ PrQQTt-a-aiu- Part2: ‘ ‘ _ ‘ l5 Tl}? (kaig‘xdiriral.-lmltr!ir: L'mrnm amt .h'gmr'r- m tar llradrf.§1-.1tmi ._B]rmnm:gwn. LN: Indiana L'ttiwrsit}; Fri-sis. IQEJEI. ] H HF. » _ I I Hi Huu has int-ch flip-ported lug: Shut'lliku: ‘ang hi- I’nlifi"[izlt1}“nll flap-an": _I sat lit: Flat]:- PNTaLmidt' [Franfi'l and (Sin-n KILO‘FU hwy Columbinnbia I_Ht1ll:i.'1.¢.':u‘.|(E A | lirht-itn-mu ul stin'it'al" idt'a is From ill! altmmnum. ruli‘rcr's L‘nmmuitls mi llit- 1|t'.|.:ltfst_‘:'ipl.l _ . I I? David Burtl'ii'trll. Phylum Fri-rte.“ in new: UN Hrmtrat‘it' Stqgirgg '.B[‘Flfl'li"5‘.lL nn't-rstti: ul (rall- Iimiia Press. Ellflfil-z C [iris Barry and Fr [i Lu. viii. Island rm Ilir Edy: Tam wt. \ra- {Jami-m and AFN-Hung Rang: Hung Rang L'nis't'rsilji' I‘rms. 2!lllfi::_3'-l1rlltzirl 35:111.: .HfM-(tlllmg Hi Imam-‘1.- Iiflrfi'tra'n' rt'inrt (Jinfrmpump- Lilia-triu- Fifrrirmrfirn :(lnltimhla {.JIIITl‘I‘HIU'VPfl'fS. lllll.i:;JttI1tt Yip. Eurisfiming Tam-rmfl'irrinn. Liliana and lflrfiirhhu m M? (Infraran IH‘JI'TIEIHI'IF' Durham. 3L. Dttkt- Unii'rrsitv. Pr-Hix'. EFHJ-Ifi: ['nr Yul: and Denis. src nutr 2. I I ‘ IH 228 Incitlcnt: iii Ft-brunry-Matth HHT. K-ll'l' trunps nml pnlirt' attacer tEu' l‘JTlllnlI populatiun on a pTelt‘Kl ufqurllilag Cumin LunsI-iltspirtal‘rt-vnlt. tituusaurln at rt m Iht- island and (It-straying trust in [lll‘ mainlnntlvr athnnuxtnilum all] amt-n. [Inn 2- film is srt during [his trials. about an t'th-Iuirtl 'I'aipci lilHIll‘)’ that t'xprnrm'rtl Iltt- tnmmil. ...
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cinema taiwan intro-jan 4 - Contents . -. A a m Firm...

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