Unit 4 Objectives


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BIOLOGY 115 LEARNING OBJECTIVES - FALL 2009 Section IV: Topics for the Fourth Examination Learning objectives will be updated following lectures. Changes to the learning objectives will be indicated as follows: additions are in red , deletions are indicated by strikethrough TOPIC: Gene Expression (Transcription and Translation) You should be able to: 1. Describe what is meant by a gene and gene expression and discuss the roles of transcription and translation in gene expression. Transcription o DNA directs synthesis of RNA o Builds/replicates RNA Translation o DNA template for RNA o Codes for the DNA sequence 2. Discuss the synthesis of RNA and the structures and functions of the 3 types of RNA and ribosomes. mRNA o Messenger RNA o Long strands o Carries information for protein synthesis o 3 RNA bases, Condon code for 1 amino acid rRNA o Ribosomal RNA o rRNA + protein o Globular shape o Site of protein synthesis o Catalyzes protein synthesis tRNA o Transfer RNA o Folded shape o Forms hydrogen bond with complementary pairs o Brings information to ribosome Information in amino acids 3. Describe the process of initiation, elongation, and termination in transcription. Initiation o Uses RNA polymerase to make larger molecules o RNA binds to promoter which is a specific site on the DNA molecule o The DNA unwinds allowing the target strand to be exposed o RNA synthesis begins with a single strand of DNA DNA used as a template Elongation o RNA polymerase moves along DNA strand o RNA is synthesized from 5’ to 3’ end Always adding to the 3’ end Termination o RNA polymerase reaches termination sequence of DNA o RNA transcript released RNA polymerase detaches
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Occurs after termination sequence is transcribed 4. Describe the roles of the promoter, RNA polymerase, and termination sequence in RNA synthesis. Promoter o A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds to RNA polymerase o The start of transcribing RNA RNA polymerase o An enzyme o Links nucleotides to a growing strand of RNA Termination sequence o The end of the synthesis of RNA o Has a stop code 5. Describe what is meant by the genetic code (you should be able to use the genetic code!). Codes with 20 amino acids Helps to code mRNA condons 6. Describe the following processes in translation: initiation, elongation, termination. Initiation o mRNA codes a start condon o tRNA attaches an anticondon Elongation o Amino acid is brought to the A site by the tRNA o Ribosome catalyzes formation of peptide bond between two amino acids o P site has growing peptide chain o A site hold tRNA carrying the next amino acid o New amino acids enter into the A site Termination o Stop condon enters No amino acid o Release factor enter A site Proteins release Ribosome subunit separate 7. Discuss the structure of the ribosome and its function in protein synthesis. Made up of rRNA+protein
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This note was uploaded on 09/24/2011 for the course BIO 115,116 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at Northwestern IA.

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