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Ch1 Neuro Notes - Neuroscience 302 Chapter 1 Neuroscience...

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Neuroscience 302 Chapter 1- Neuroscience: Past, Present, and Future The Origins of Neuroscience 7000 years ago trephination holes in skull o Surgery done to relieve headaches/ mental disorders o Get rid of “evil spirits” 5000 years ago Egyptians knew about brain damages o Thought the heart recollects memories and was the soul Therefore they discarded the brain before afterlife Heart was preserved Hippocrates- 1 st person to challenge that the heart is the seat of consciousness Views of the Brain- Ancient Greece Hippocrates (460-379 BC) – father of Western Medicine o The brain is not only involved with sensation, but it is the seat of intelligence Aristotle (384-322 BC)- famous Greek Philosopher o Heart was the center of intellect o Brain cooled down blood that the heart overheated Thought to explain the rational temperament of humans o Aristotle was the dumbass that got everything wrong (science, medicine, galaxies) Views of the Brain – Roman Empire (Fig. 1.2,1.3) Galen (130-200 AD)- Greek physician & writer o Important to Roman medicine (like Hippocrates) o Physician to gladiators therefore he saw many spine and brain injuries Most important his animal dissection o Cerebrum front soft thought to be the recipient of sensations
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o Cerebellum back hard commands muscles o Reached the right conclusions for the wrong reasons Cerebrum sensation, perception, memory Cerebellum movement control center o Brain is hollow hollow spaces called ventricles inside them = fluid Theory that body functions according to balance of 4 vital fluids/humors Sensations registered and movements initiated with humors to/from brain ventricles by nerves ( believed to be hollow tubes like blood vessels) Views of the Brain- Renaissance- 19 th Century (Fig. 1.5) Galen’s View prevailed for 1500 years Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) anatomist- Renaissance added more details o Ventricular localization of brain function unchallenged 17 th Century French invented hydraulically controlled mechanics o Brain could be machine-like too Fluid forced out the ventricles and through the nerves can cause you to move limbs, also muscles bulge when they contract 1662 Descartes, hollow nerves in the eye brain ventricles mind influences motor response pineal gland (valve to control movement) spirits move through nerves inflate muscles Rene Descartes (1596- 1650)- French mathematician and philosopher o Fluid- mechanical theory explained brain and behavior of other animals o Not full-range of human behavior Believed people had a God-given soul Brain only controls beast-like behavior
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Mental capacities exist outside the brain in the “mind” Mind spiritual receives sensations and commands
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