EOC Chapter 2 - CHAPTER 2 THE COMPONENTS OF MATTER 2.1 Plan...

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CHAPTER 2 THE COMPONENTS OF MATTER 2.1 Plan: Refer to the definitions of an element and a compound. Solution: Unlike compounds, elements cannot be broken down by chemical changes into simpler materials. Compounds contain different types of atoms; there is only one type of atom in an element. 2.2 1) A compound has constant composition but a mixture has variable composition. 2) A compound has distinctly different properties than its component elements; the components in a mixture retain their individual properties. 2.3 a) The fixed mass ratio means it has constant composition, thus, it is a pure substance (compound). b) All the atoms are identical, thus, it is a pure substance (element). c) The composition can vary, thus, this is an impure substance (a mixture). d) The specific arrangement of different atoms means it has constant composition, thus, it is a pure substance (compound). 2.4 Plan: Review the definitions of elements, compounds, and mixtures. Solution: a) The presence of more than one element (calcium and chlorine) makes this pure substance a compound . b) There are only atoms from one element, sulfur, so this pure substance in an element . c) The presence of more than one compound makes this a mixture . d) The presence of more than one type of atom means it cannot be an element. The specific, not variable, arrangement means it is a compound . 2.5 a) This scene has 3 atoms of an element, 2 molecules of one compound and 2 molecules of a second compound. b) This scene has 2 atoms of one element, 2 molecules of a diatomic element and 2 molecules of a compound. c) This scene has 2 molecules of one element and 3 molecules of a second element. 2.6 Plan: Restate the three laws in your own words. Solution: a) The law of mass conservation applies to all substances — elements, compounds, and mixtures . Matter can neither be created nor destroyed, whether it is an element, compound, or mixture. b) The law of definite composition applies to compounds only, because it refers to a constant, or definite, composition of elements within a compound. c) The law of multiple proportions applies to compounds only, because it refers to the combination of elements to form compounds. 2.7 Plan: Review the three laws: Law of Mass Conservation, Law of Definite Composition, and Law of Multiple Proportions. Solution: a) Law of Definite Composition — The compound potassium chloride, KCl, is composed of the same elements and same fraction by mass, regardless of its source (Chile or Poland). b) Law of Mass Conservation — The mass of the substance inside the flashbulb did not change during the chemical reaction (formation of magnesium oxide from magnesium and oxygen). c) Law of Multiple Proportions — Two elements, O and As, can combine to form two different compounds that have different proportions of As present.
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EOC Chapter 2 - CHAPTER 2 THE COMPONENTS OF MATTER 2.1 Plan...

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