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CHAPTER 13 THE PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS 13.1 A heterogeneous mixture has two or more phases, thus seawater has both dissolved and suspended particles. The composition of the seawater is different in various places where a sample may be obtained. 13.2 When a salt such as NaCl dissolves, ion-dipole forces cause the ions to separate, and many water molecules cluster around each of them in hydration shells. Ion-dipole forces hold the first shell. Additional shells are held by hydrogen bonding to inner shells. 13.3 In CH 3 (CH 2 ) n COOH, as n increases, the hydrophobic (CH) portion of the carboxylic acid increases and the hydrophilic part of the molecule stays the same, with a resulting decrease in water solubility. 13.4 a) A more concentrated solution will have more solute dissolved in the solvent. Potassium nitrate, KNO 3 , is an ionic compound and therefore soluble in a polar solvent like water. Potassium nitrate is not soluble in the nonpolar solvent CCl 4 . Because potassium nitrate dissolves to a greater extent in water, KNO 3 in H 2 O will result in the more concentrated solution. 13.5 b) Stearic acid in CCl 4 . Stearic acid will not dissolve in water. It is nonpolar while water is very polar. Stearic acid will dissolve in carbon tetrachloride, as both are nonpolar. 13.6 To identify the strongest type of intermolecular force, check the formula of the solute and identify the forces that could occur. Then look at the formula for the solvent and determine if the forces identified for the solute would occur with the solvent. The strongest force is ion-dipole followed by dipole-dipole (including H bonds). Next in strength is ion-induced dipole force and then dipole-induced dipole force. The weakest intermolecular interactions are dispersion forces. a) Ion-dipole forces are the strongest intermolecular forces in the solution of the ionic substance cesium chloride in polar water. b) Hydrogen bonding (type of dipole-dipole force) is the strongest intermolecular force in the solution of polar propanone (or acetone) in polar water. c) Dipole-induced dipole forces are the strongest forces between the polar methanol and nonpolar carbon tetrachloride. 13.7 a) metallic bonding b) dipole-dipole c) dipole-induced dipole 13.8 a) Hydrogen bonding occurs between the H atom on water and the lone electron pair on the O atom in dimethyl ether (CH 3 OCH 3 ). However, none of the hydrogen atoms on dimethyl ether participates in hydrogen bonding because the C H bond does not have sufficient polarity. b) The dipole in water induces a dipole on the Ne( g ) atom, so dipole-induced dipole interactions are the strongest intermolecular forces in this solution. c) Nitrogen gas and butane are both nonpolar substances, so dispersion forces are the principal attractive forces.
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