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eep101-lecture11innivation-1-1

eep101-lecture11innivation-1-1 - EEP101/ECON125 Lecture11...

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EEP 101/ECON 125   Lecture 11 : Innovation and Adoption David Zilberman UC Berkeley 
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Overview of the Lecture What is technology?  What is technological   adoption?   Examples of technological innovations How are new technologies developed?  The  innovation process Who adopts and why?  Theories of technological  adoption Adoption and marketing
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What Is Technology?  Definitions     Simply,  technology (or innovations) is defined as  “new ways to achieve tasks.” In  economics , technology implies  changes to the  production function that alters the relationship  between inputs and outputs , resulting in improved  efficiency. In  agriculture , this implies changes to agricultural  inputs (e.g., seeds, water, fertilizers) that affect  agricultural outputs (e.g., wheat, corn, rice).
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What Is Technology?  Types We often distinguish between  process innovations   (new biotechnology procedures) and  product  innovations  (Bt cotton).   Types of innovations include: Mechanical (tractors) Chemical (pesticides) Biological (improved seed varieties, GMOs) Managerial (integrated pest management) Institutional (water users’ associations)
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What Is Technology?  Timing In the short run, technologies are inflexible,  implying fixed input-output ratios.   In the longer run, investing in new  technologies can change the input-output  ratios (and hence the production coefficients) For example, during the energy crisis, people  slightly modified their cars, but the main  response to higher price of energy was less  driving.  Later on, fuel-efficient cars were  introduced.  
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Examples of Technological Innovation Agricultural examples: Seed varieties (GMOs, modifications) New agricultural techniques (integrated pest  management, demi-lunes) New water technologies (irrigation, drip  agriculture) Fertilizers, pesticides Non-agricultural examples
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Technological Innovation and Agriculture:   What Impact? Overall, technological innovations in  agriculture have altered the input/output  ratios This has lead to increased input use  efficiency—more output use per unit of  critical inputs
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Technological Innovation and  Agriculture:  What Impact? (Cont.) Increased global food production (2.8 times the  level of food produced in 1950) Improved yields of specific crop varieties (corn,  wheat, soybeans, cotton)  Slowed expansion of cultivated land and reduced  levels of deforestation Increase irrigated land over the past century
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Yield 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 Corn yield per acre did not change for 100 years,  and then grew by 2% annually – an example of  biological innovation
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