Bonding - E N Repulsive energy E Interatomic separation r r...

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1 Chapter 2 - Type Ionic Covalent Metallic Secondary Bond Energy Large! Variable large-Diamond small-Bismuth Variable large-Tungsten small-Mercury smallest Comments Nondirectional ( ceramics ) Directional ( semiconductors , ceramics polymer chains) Nondirectional ( metals ) Directional inter-chain ( polymer ) inter-molecular Bonding
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2 Chapter 2 - Ceramics Metals (Metallic bonding): Polymers Large bond energy Variable bond energy moderate T m moderate E moderate α Directional Properties Secondary bonding dominates Primary Bonds secondary bonding
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3 Chapter 2 - Ionic bond metal + nonmetal donates accepts electrons electrons
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4 Chapter 2 - Occurs between + and - ions. Requires electron transfer. Large difference in electronegativity required. Example: NaCl Ionic Bonding Na (metal) unstable Cl (nonmetal) unstable electron + - Coulombic Attraction Na (cation) stable Cl (anion) stable
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5 Chapter 2 - Ionic Bonding Energy – minimum energy most stable Energy balance of attractive and repulsive terms Net energy
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Unformatted text preview: E N Repulsive energy E Interatomic separation r r A n r B--Adapted from Fig. 2.8(b), Callister 7e. 6 Chapter 2 -C: has 4 valence e-, needs 4 more H: has 1 valence e-, needs 1 more Electronegativities are comparable. Adapted from Fig. 2.10, Callister 7e. Covalent Bonding similar electronegativity share electrons bonds determined by valence s & p orbitals dominate bonding Example: CH 4 shared electrons from carbon atom shared electrons from hydrogen atoms H H H H C CH 4 7 Chapter 2 -Arises from interaction between dipoles Permanent dipoles-molecule induced Fluctuating dipoles-general case:-ex: liquid HCl-ex: polymer Adapted from Fig. 2.13, Callister 7e. Adapted from Fig. 2.14, Callister 7e. SECONDARY BONDING asymmetric electron clouds +-+-secondary bonding H H H H H 2 H 2 secondary bonding ex: liquid H 2 H Cl H Cl secondary bonding secondary bonding +-+-secondary bonding secondary bonding...
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This note was uploaded on 09/25/2011 for the course METE 227 taught by Professor Ali during the Spring '10 term at Middle East Technical University.

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Bonding - E N Repulsive energy E Interatomic separation r r...

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