Eating, Substance Abuse, Sex/Gender/Sexual, Impulse-Control, and Personality Disorders Paper
Eating, Substance Abuse, Sex/Gender/Sexual, Impulse-Control, and Personality Disorders
An individual’s normal function undergoes reduction accompanying eating, substance ab-
use, sexual, impulse control and personality disorders. Each disorder involves components vary-
ing widely, but understanding each reduces the stigmatism of those disorders. Knowledge pro-
motes the realistic application of causes and components found within these disorders.
Biological components of eating disorders include a genetic basis, hormonal excesses and
deficiencies, and abnormal neural activity. Individuals with anorexia and bulimia have unusually
low serotonin levels, as well as structural brain abnormalities. Brain alterations may be a re-
sponse to changes to the endocrine and metabolic reactions to starvation (Krieg, Lauer, & Pirke,
Emotional components include complex reactions to high expectations set by parents and
the individual. The disorder also may function as a self-protection from adult sexuality or a re-
sponse to a sexually abusive experience. Sufferers strive toward high expectations and suffer the
effects of not reaching those goals (Krieg et al, 1989).
Cognitive explanations of eating disorders focus on eating or starvation experiences that
reinforce eating such as thoughts of distortion about food and weight. Individuals may have ab-
normal body images, continue in the belief they need to lose weight,
and fear gaining weight.
Behavioral components of these disorders is binging, then purging by vomiting. Sufferers
may use laxatives or diuretics and fast exercise excessively to prevent weight gain. In anorexia,
individuals find comfort in starvation. Eating disorders often are a result of inappropriate
thoughts and experiences that reinforce chaotic eating behaviors (Krieg et al, 1989).
Substance Use Disorders