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Pres1-intro - Fiber-Optic Communication Systems An...

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Fiber-Optic Communication Systems An Introduction Xavier Fernando Ryerson Communications Lab http://www.ee.ryerson.ca/~fernando
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Why Optical Communications? Optical Fiber is the backbone of the modern communication networks The Optical Fiber Carries: Almost all long distance phone calls Most Internet traffic (Dial-up, DSL or Cable) Most Television channels (Cable or DSL) Most LAN, WAN and much more One fiber can carry up to 6.4 Tb/s (10 b/s) or
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Multimedia over Fiber Fiber carries various media Voice (SONET/Telephony) - The largest traffic Video (TV) over Hybrid Fiber Coaxial (HFC) or Fiber-Twisted Pair/ Digital Subscriber Loops (DSL) Data – Internet traffic These three are called the ‘Triple Play’ Information revolution wouldn’t have happened without the Optical Fiber
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Why Optical Communications? Lowest Attenuation: 0.2 dB/km at 1.55 µ m band resulting in 100s of km fiber links without repeaters Highest Bandwidth of any communication channel : Single Mode Fiber (SMF) offers the lowest dispersion highest bit rate rich content (broadband) up to 100 Gb/s or more Enormous Capacity: Via WDM that also offer easy upgradability, The ‘Optical Layer’: Wavelength routing, switching and processing all optically, which adds another layer of flexibility
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Why OPTICOM for you? Most of you will eventually work in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) area 138,000 ICT engineers hired in US in 2006 compared to 14000 in biomedical (http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos027.htm) Canada produces 40% of the worlds optoelectronic products (Nortel, JDS Uniphase, Quebec Photonic Cluster…)
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Elements of OPTICOM System
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Elements of OPTICOM System The Fiber – that carries the light Single Mode Fiber (only one EM mode exists), offers the highest bit rate, most widely used Multi Mode Fiber (multiple EM modes exist), hence higher dispersion (due to multiple modes) cheaper than SMF, used in local area networks Step Index Fiber – two distinct refractive indices Graded Index Fiber – gradual change in refractive index
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Elements of OPTICOM System Optical Transmitter converts the electrical information to optical format (E/O) Light Emitting Diode (LED): cheap, robust and used with MMF in short range applications Surface emitting and edge emitting LED LASER Diode: high performance and more
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