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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 17 ROMANESQUE EUROPE 1. Lecture Strategies and Key Ideas. This chapter explains the characteristics of “Romanesque” art, a term invented in the 19 th century to describe medieval art that was “Roman-like.” Certain distinctive architectural elements of the period’s church buildings, like barrel and groin vaults, were based on the round arch and resembled those of ancient Rome. During the 11 th and 12 th centuries, thousands of church buildings were newly constructed or remodeled in the style of the old Roman basilicas. This chapter explains the similarities of church construction in France, Northern Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, Normandy, England, and Italy where the basilica design continued. Pilgrimages to Spain’s “Santiago de Compostela” (see map on page 432) caused many towns to construct church buildings with designs to accommodate the many pilgrims. Such buildings and remodelings led to the introduction and enlargement of ambulatories. The perils of wooden construction led to the destruction by fire of many Romanesque churches and would lead to a re-design in support of metal roofs, as will be seen in the Gothic style of the 13 th century (topic discussed in the chapter’s Timber Roofs and Stone Vaults). The individual styles of Romanesque architecture explored in this chapter include: French (Saint-Etienne, Saint-Sernin and “Cluny III”), German (Speyer Cathedral), Italian Lombardian (Saint’Ambrogio), Norman (Saint-Etienne in Caen, France) English (Durham Cathedral), and Tuscan (Pisa Cathedral complex.) The chapter also explores the charming yet sometimes frightening sculpture that adorns Romanesque churches. Students should especially enjoy those found at Saint-Sernin (“Christ in Majesty”) and the tympanums at Autun and Vezelay....
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- Spring '10