lecture_2_body-systems - The Systems of the Body Neuron...

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Unformatted text preview: The Systems of the Body Neuron Cell body – source of life of the cell Dendrites – branches on the cell bodies that act as receivers of messages from adjacent neurons. Axon – projection through which messages travel. Synaptic knobs: Tips of branches at end of axon. Sends messages to adjacent neurons. Synapse: Fluid filled gap between neurons. The Nervous System Brain Spinal cord Central nervous system (carries vo luntary nerve impu lses to muscles and skin; carries invo luntary impu lses to muscles and g lands) Soma tic nervous system (contro ls vo luntary movement) Sympa thetic nervous system (mob ilizes the body for action) Parasympa thetic nervous system (ma inta ins and restores equ ilibrium ) Autonom ic nervous system (contro ls organs that operate invo luntarily) Peripheral nervous system Nervous System Three sections of the brain Hindbrain • Medulla • Pons • cerebellum Midbrain • Pathway connecting hindbrain and Forebrain. Forebrain • Diencephalon • Telecephalon Diencephalon • Thalamus • Hypothalamus Telecephalon • Cerebrum • Limbic system Telencephalon Upper and largest portion of the brain Involved in higher order intelligence, memory, and personality Composed of two hemispheres Left hemisphere – language processes, etc. Right hemisphere – visual imagery, emotions, etc. Four lobes of the cerebral cortex Frontal • Motor activity • Higher level intelligence • Planning • Problem solving • Emotions • Self-awareness Parietal • Bodily sensations, e.g., pain, heat • Body movement Temporal • Hearing • Vision • Smell • Memory Occipital • Primary visual area of the brain Reticular Activating System and Limbic System Reticular activating system runs from the medulla through the midbrain into the hypothalamus. Responsibility for activation of all areas of the brain and if damaged – coma ensues Limbic system controls emotion It has three sub-circuits Limbic System - emotions Amygdala and hippocampus – essential for self-preservation, includes aggression. Cingulate gyrus, the septum, and areas of the hypothalamus – pleasure and sexual excitement. Areas of the thalamus and hypothalamus – important to socially relevant behaviour Diencephalon Thalamus • Chief relay centre for directing sensory messages Helps regulate awareness • Relays commands going to the skeletal muscles from the motor cortex....
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This note was uploaded on 09/26/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 110 taught by Professor Kannan during the Spring '11 term at Anna University Chennai - Regional Office, Coimbatore.

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lecture_2_body-systems - The Systems of the Body Neuron...

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