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lecture_5_stress_and_moderators - Stress Three Views of...

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    Stress
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Three Views of Stress 1. Focus on the environment: stress as a  stimulus (stressors) 2. Reaction to stress: stress as a  response (distress) 3. Relationship between person and the  environment: stress as an interaction  (coping)
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Stressors Some examples?
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Stressors War Overcrowding Deadlines Dense traffic Marital conflict Work stress
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Acute vs. Chronic Stress Acute stress Sudden, typically short-lived, threatening  event (e.g., robbery, giving a speech) Chronic stress Ongoing environmental demand (e.g.,  marital conflict, work stress, personality)
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Acute Stress
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Acute Stress – Rozanski 1988 Subjects – 39 individuals with coronary  artery disease Stress tasks (0-5 minutes each): Mental arithmetic Stroop-colour word conflict task Stress speech (talk about personal fault) Graded exercise on bicycle (until chest  pain or exhaustion)
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Acute Stress – Rozanski 1988 Outcome – stress response Myocardial ischemia determined by  radionuclide ventriculography (measures  wall motion abnormalities in the heart)
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Acute Stress – Rozanski 1988 Results Cardiac wall motion abnormalities were  significantly greater with stress speech  than other mental stress tasks (p < .05)  and was of the same order of magnitude  as that with graded exercise. Wall motion abnormalities occurred with  lower heart rate during stress than during  exercise (64 vs. 94 beats/min, p < .001)
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Chronic Stress –  Frankenhauser, 1989 Subjects – 30 managerial and 30  clerical workers Equal number of men and women Outcome: blood pressure, heart rate,  and catecholamines measured  throughout workday and non-workday.
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Chronic Stress –  Frankenhauser, 1989 No gender differences in the effect of  work on BP and HR. In both men and women, BP and HR  were higher on a workday than a non- workday.
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Chronic Stress –  Frankenhauser, 1989 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 Women Men Time of Day Catecholamine Response
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Three Views of Stress 1. Focus on the environment: stress as a  stimulus (stressors) 2. Reaction to stress: stress as a  response (distress) 3. Relationship between person and the  environment: stress as an interaction  (coping)
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Fight or Flight Response Increase in Epinephrine &  norepinephrine Cortisol Heart rate & blood  pressure Levels & mobilization of  free fatty acids,  cholesterol &  triglycerides Platelet adhesiveness &  aggregation  Decrease in Blood flow to the  kidneys, skin and gut
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Selye’s General Adaptation  Syndrome (1956, 1976, 1985) Perceived Stressor Alarm Reaction Fight or flight Resistance Arousal high as body tries defend and adapt.
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