lecture_6_using_health_services

lecture_6_using_health_services - Using Health Services...

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    Using Health Services
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    Perceiving and Interpreting  Symptoms Our perceptions are not very accurate There are individual differences: Some people have more symptoms There are differences in what people can  tolerate Differ in how much attention is paid to internal  states Internally focused people overestimate bodily  changes and experience slower recovery
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    Personality and Hypertension: Effect of Hypertension  Awareness 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Neuroticism Aware Hyper Normot Unaware Hyper Normot P < 0.001
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    Personality and Hypertension: Conclusion Awareness of hypertension status  confounds assessment of the  association between personality  characteristics and hypertension. Due to hypertension labeling effect; or Due to self-selection bias
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    Perceiving and Interpreting  Symptoms Our perceptions are not very accurate There are individual differences: Some people have more symptoms There are differences in what people can  tolerate Differ in how much attention is paid to internal  states Internally focused people overestimate bodily  changes and experience slower recovery
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    Symptoms Awareness Background stress is associated with  greater reports of symptoms Mood  - positive mood associated with  fewer symptom reports than negative  mood.
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    Expectations Prior experience, beliefs, and  knowledge influence expectations about  symptoms. Ignore unexpected symptoms and amplify  expected symptoms Beliefs about the disease label, causes,  time course, and consequences influence  symptom awareness and experience. 
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    Placebos Inert substance or treatments People can experience real symptom relief. Furthermore taking placebos faithfully is  associated with a lower likelihood of death.
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Adherence with Medication Adherent > = 66% of pills taken Poorly adherent 66% of pills taken RR = 2.11, 95% CI, 1.03-4.56, p < .05 Adherent >= 66% of pills taken Poorly adherent < 66% of pills taken RR=3.15, 95% CI, 1.34-7.44, p < .01 Placebo Group Amiodarone Group Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death Survival Time in Days 800 600 400 200 0 Cumulative Survival 1.00 .98 .96 .94 .92 .90 Adherent Poorly Adherent Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death Survival Time in Days 800 600 400 200 0 1.0 .9 .8 .7 Adherent Poorly Adherent
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    Medical student’s disease - Studying symptoms leads to greater  focus on one’s own symptoms (e.g., of  fatigue) that then get interpreted as  indicative if disease.
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  Mass Psychogenic Illness Widespread symptom perception among  a large group of individuals, without any  evidence for physical or environmental  cause.  Factors contributing to this effect are:
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This note was uploaded on 09/26/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 110 taught by Professor Kannan during the Spring '11 term at Anna University.

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lecture_6_using_health_services - Using Health Services...

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