Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Federalism CHAPTER 3 Federalism...

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Chapter 3 Federalism CHAPTER 3 Federalism 0OBJECTIVES The central purpose of the chapter is to introduce the student to some of the complexities of federal government in the United States—where both the national and state governments have powers independent of one another. After reading and reviewing the material in this chapter, the student should be able to do each of the following:0 10. Identify important policy areas affected by federalism. 20. Explain the difference between federal and centralized systems of government, and give examples of each. 30. Show how competing political interests at the Constitutional Convention led to the adoption of a federal system that was not clearly defined. 40. Outline the ways in which national and state powers have been interpreted by the courts. 50. State the reasons why federal grants-in-aid to the states have been politically popular, and cite what have proven to be their pitfalls. Distinguish categorical grants and block grants. 60. Distinguish mandates and conditions of aid with respect to federal grant programs to states and localities. Discuss whether or to what extent federal grants to the states have created uniform national policies comparable with those of centralized governments. 70. Evaluate the effect of devolution on relationships between the national and state governments. Assess its implications for citizens as taxpayers and as clients of government programs. 0OVERVIEW How one evaluates federalism depends in large part on the value one attaches to the competing criteria of equality and participation. Federalism means that citizens living in different parts of the country will be treated differently. This applies not only to spending programs (such as welfare), but also to legal systems (where civil rights may be differentially protected or criminal sentencing may vary). Yet federalism also means that citizens have more opportunities to participate in decision making. It allows people to influence what is taught in the schools and to decide where highways and other government projects will be built. Indeed, differences in public policy—that is, unequal treatment—are largely the result of wider participation in decision making. It is difficult, perhaps even impossible, to have more of one of these values without having less of the other. States participate actively both in determining national policy and in administering national programs. Moreover, they reserve to themselves or to localities within them important powers over such public services as schooling and law enforcement and such important public decisions as land use. In a unitary system, these powers are exercised by the national government. From the 1930s to the present, United States politics and public policy became decidedly more
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This note was uploaded on 09/24/2011 for the course MATHE 32341 taught by Professor Mac during the Spring '11 term at Delaware Tech.

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Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Federalism CHAPTER 3 Federalism...

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