Chapter 13 - CHAPTER 13 Congress CHAPTER OUTLINE WITH...

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CHAPTER 13 Congress CHAPTER OUTLINE WITH KEYED-IN RESOURCES I. Contrasts between a parliament and a congress A.Comparison with British Parliament 1. Parliamentary candidates are selected by their party. a) Become a candidate by persuading your party to place your name on ballot b) Voters choose between national parties, not between multiple candidates within a single party. c) Members of Parliament select prime minister and other leaders. d) Party members vote together on most issues. e) Renomination depends on remaining loyal to party. f) Principal work is debate over national issues. g) Members have very little actual power, very little pay or staff resources. 2. Congressional candidates run in a primary election, with little party control over their nomination. a) Vote is for the candidate, not the party. b) Result is a body of independent representatives of districts or states. c) Members do not choose the chief executive—voters elect president. d) Members’ principal work is representation and action; power is decentralized and members are independent. e) Party discipline is limited, not enduring (104th Congress, 1995). f) Members have a great deal of power, high pay and significant staff resources. g) See the How Things Work box, The Powers of Congress. II. The evolution of Congress A.Intent of the Framers 1. To oppose the concentration of power in a single institution 2. To balance large and small states: bicameralism 3. Expected Congress to be the dominant institution B. General characteristics of subsequent evolution 1. Congress was generally dominant over presidency until the twentieth century. a) Exceptions: brief periods of presidential activism 2. Major political struggles were within Congress. a) Generally over issues of national significance, e.g., slavery, new states, internal improvements, tariffs, business regulation b) Overriding political question: distribution of power within Congress (1) Centralize—if the need is for quick and decisive action (2) Decentralize—if congressional members and constituency interests are to be dominant (3) General trend has been toward decentralization. C. But the organization of the House has varied across the years. 1. Phase one: the powerful House a) Congressional leadership supplied by the president or cabinet officers in first three administrations (Washington, J. Adams, Jefferson) b) House of Representatives preeminent, originating legislation c) Party caucus shaped policy questions, selected party candidate for the presidency. 2. Phase two: a divided House (late 1820s) a) Andrew Jackson asserted presidential power through the veto.
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b) Caucus system disappears, replaced with national nominating conventions. c)
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This note was uploaded on 09/24/2011 for the course MATHE 32341 taught by Professor Mac during the Spring '11 term at Delaware Tech.

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Chapter 13 - CHAPTER 13 Congress CHAPTER OUTLINE WITH...

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