Crusades - The Crusades: 1095-1272 AD (adapted by Jim...

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The Crusades: 1095-1272 AD (adapted by Jim Janossy from various sources in Wikipedia) Overview The Crusades were a series of religiously-sanctioned military campaigns waged by much of Christian Weater Europe. These campaigns, to restore Christian control of the Holy Land, were fought over a period of nearly 200 years between 1095 and 1291: First Crusade 1095-1099 Second Crusade 1147–1149 Third Crusade 1187–1192 Fourth Crusade 1202–1204 Children's Crusade Fifth Crusade 1217–1221 Sixth Crusade 1228–1229 Seventh Crusade 1248–1254 Eighth Crusade 1270 Ninth Crusade 1271–1272 The Crusades were fought mainly by Roman Catholic forces against Muslims who had occupied the near east since 638 AD. Orthodox Christians also took part in fighting against Islamic forces in some crusades. Crusaders took vows and were granted penance for past sins, often called an indulgence. The crusades originally had the goal of recapturing Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim rule and were launched in response to a call from the Christian Byzantine Empire for help against the expansion of the Muslim Seljuk Turks into Anatolia (Turkey). The crusades had far-reaching political, economic, and social impacts, some of which have lasted into contemporary times. Because of internal conflicts among Christian kingdoms and political powers, some of the crusade expeditions were diverted from their original aim, such as the Fourth Crusade, which resulted in the sack of Christian Constantinople and the partition of the Byzantine Empire between Venice and the crusaders. The Sixth Crusade was the first crusade to set sail without the official blessing of the Pope, The Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Crusades resulted in Muslim victories which marked the end of the crusades. The crusades were never referred to as such by their participants. The original crusaders were known by various terms, including fideles Sancti Petri (the faithful of Saint Peter) or milites Christi (knights of Christ). They saw themselves as undertaking an “iter,” a journey, or a peregrinatio , a pilgrimage (although pilgrims were usually forbidden to carry arms, which the crusaders did indeed carry). Like pilgrims, each crusader swore a vow to be fulfilled on successfully reaching Jerusalem, and they were granted a cloth cross (crux) to be sewn into their clothes. This "taking of the cross," the crux, eventually became associated with the entire journey; the word "crusade" coming into English from the Medieval French croisade and Spanish cruzada . The Holy Land The Holy Land, on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea—also known as The Levant—is significant in Christianity as the place of nativity, ministry, crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth, whom Christians regard as the Savior, the Messiah. By the end of the 4th century, following the Roman Emperor Constantine's conversion to Christianity in AD 313 and later the founding of the Byzantine Empire after the partition of the Roman Empire, the Holy Land had become a
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This note was uploaded on 09/26/2011 for the course GPH 225 taught by Professor Gph225 during the Winter '10 term at DePaul.

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Crusades - The Crusades: 1095-1272 AD (adapted by Jim...

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